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Austrian-Hungarian Empire

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Austria-Hungary
Österreich-Ungarn
Austria-hungary
Flag
100px-Coat.svg
Coat of Arms

Motto
Indivisibiliter ac Inseparabiliter
Anthem
Kaiserhymne
Capital city Vienna and Budapest
Largest city Vienna
Official language(s) English (de facto, unofficial)
Demonym Austro-Hungarian
Government Constitutional parliamentary monarchy
- Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary Oskar I
- Chancellor of Austria-Hungary Christian Freiherr von Newton
Legislature Reichstag
Established 1 September 2014
Area claimed ~ 676,615 sq ft
Currency Krone (K/Kr)
Patron saint Saint Stephen, King of Hungary

Official website Forum Visa Application


Austria-Hungary, also known as the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Empire of Austria-Hungary and by other names in other languages, is micronation based in a constitutional union of the Empire of Austria and the Apostolic Kingdom of Hungary that existed from 1867 until 1939 when it collapsed as a result of Anchluss and restored in 1949. The union was a result of the Compromise of 1867. It was ruled by the House of Habsburg-Lorraine until 2014 and from now on, by the House of Habsburg-Lorraine-Este, and constituted the last phase in the constitutional evolution of the Habsburg Monarchy. Following the 1867 reforms, the Austrian and the Hungarian states were co-equal within the Empire. The Compromise required regular renewal, as did the customs union between the two halves of the Empire. Foreign affairs and the military fell under joint control, but all other government faculties were divided between the respective states. Austria-Hungary was a multinational realm and one of the world's great powers. The Austro-Hungarian Empire consisted of two monarchies (Austria and Hungary) and other countries and provinces in personal union.

The Imperial Family

Following the failure of both Emperor Joseph I and Emperor Charles VI to produce a son and heir, the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 left the throne to the latter's yet unborn daughter, Maria Theresa. In 1736 Emperor Charles arranged her marriage to Francis of Lorraine who agreed to exchange his hereditary lands for the Grand Duchy of Tuscany (as well as Duchy of Teschen from the Emperor).

At Charles's death in 1740 the Habsburg lands passed to Maria Theresa and Francis, who was later elected Holy Roman Emperor as Francis I. The Habsburg-Lorraine nuptials and dynastic union precipitated, and survived, the War of the Austrian Succession. Francis and Maria Theresa's daughters Marie Antoinette and Maria Carolina became Queens of France and Naples-Sicily, respectively; while their sons Joseph II and Leopold II succeeded to the imperial title.

Apart from the core Habsburg dominions, including the triple crowns of Austria, Hungary, and Bohemia, several junior branches of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine reigned in the Italian duchies of Tuscany, Parma and Modena. Another member of the house, Archduke Maximilian of Austria, was Emperor of Mexico.

In 1900, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria (then heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne) contracted amorganatic marriage with Countess Sophie Chotek. Their descendants, known as the House of Hohenberg, have been excluded from succession to the Austrian-Hungarian crown, but not that of Lorraine, where morganatic marriage has never been outlawed. Nevertheless, Otto von Habsburg, the eldest grandson of Franz Ferdinand's younger brother, was universally regarded as the current head of the house. It was at Nancy, the former capital of the House of Vaudemont, that the crown prince married Princess Regina of Saxe-Meiningen in 1951.

In turn, the Emperor Karl II, son of Otto I, married Baroness Francesca Thyssen-Bornemisza, and the case of an unequal marriage, compounded by lack of pretension of the descendants of this, his throne was inherited by his nephew branch Habsburg-Lorraine-Este, then returning the Emperor of Austria accumulate the imperial title and the Archduke of Austria-Este and Duke of Modena.

The Imperial Council

In the course of the Revolutions of 1848, representatives from those crown lands of the Austrian Empire incorporated in the German Confederation met in a "Imperial Diet" at Vienna. The convention was inaugurated by Archduke John on 22 July 1848 and after the Vienna Uprising of October moved to Kroměříž, in Moravia. It not only abolished the last remnants of serfdom in the Austrian lands, but also undertook to draw up a constitution that would reflect the Empire's character of a multinational state, especially in view of the Austroslavic movement led by the Czech politician František Palacký.

On 4 March 1849, however, minister-president Felix zu Schwarzenberg took the initiative and imposed the March Constitution, which promised the equality of all Austrian people and also provided for a bicameral "Imperial Diet". It was nevertheless only a sidestep, as Schwarzenberg three days later forcefully disbanded the Kremsier Parliament and finally had the constitution annulled with the New Year's Eve Patent (Silvesterpatent) of 1851. Emperor Franz Joseph went on to rule with absolute power. In place of the Imperial Diet, he installed an "Imperial Council" whose members were appointed on his authority.

In the 1850s, chronic fiscal malaise became acute. The dire nature of the situation was revealed to the Emperor after the Second Italian War of Independence and the bloody defeat of Austrian forces at the 1859 Battle of Solferino. To calm the domestic front and to gain the support of wealthy Bourgeoisie, Franz Joseph issued the October Diploma in 1860. An "Imperial Diet", still meant as a conciliatory body, was supposed to have 100 delegates elected by provincial diets that were to be established for each Austrian crown land. This electoral system, however, satisfied neither the bourgeois liberals nor the Hungarian nobility, who refused to accept any authority higher than the Hungarian Diet.

For this reason, the Diploma was discarded and replaced by the February Patent of 1861, which was drafted by liberal minister-president Anton von Schmerling. This established a bicameral Imperial Council: the upper house was the House of Lords, and the lower house was the House of Deputies.

Imperial Army

The Austro-Hungarian Army was the ground force of the Austria Hungary since 1867. It was composed of three parts: the joint army (Gemeinsame Armee, "Common Army", recruited from all parts of the country), the Austrian Landwehr, (recruited from Cisleithania), and the Hungarian Honved (recruited from Transleithania).

In the wake of fighting between the Austrian Empire and the Hungarian rebels during the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, and the two decades of uneasy co-existence following, Hungarian soldiers served either in mixed units or were stationed away from Hungarian areas. With the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 the new tripartite army was brought into being.

The joint "Imperial and Royal Army" (kaiserlich und königliche Armee or k.u.k.) units were composed of four battalions.

The long standing white infantry uniforms were replaced in the latter half of the 19th century with dark blue tunics, which in turn were replaced by a pike grey uniform used in the initial stages of World War I. In September 1915, field gray was adopted as the new official uniform color.

Imperial Navy

The Austro-Hungarian Navy is the naval force of Austria-Hungary. Its official name in German was kaiserliche und königliche Kriegsmarine (Imperial and Royal War Navy), abbreviated as k.u.k. Kriegsmarine. This navy existed under this name after the formation of the Dual Monarchy in 1867. Prior to 1867, the country's naval forces were those of the Austrian Empire. Ships of the k.u.k. Kriegsmarine were designated SMS, for Seiner Majestät Schiff (His Majesty's Ship).

Geography

The official full name of the country is "The Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council and the Lands of the Hungarian Holy Crown of St. Stephen" and it was composed by Cisleithania (Trentino, Trieste, Carniola, German Austria, German Bohemia, Bohemia and German Moravia) and Transleithania (Hungary, West Galicia, East Galicia, Croatia, Transylvania, Szeklerland, ). After a proposal conceived by the lawyer and politician Aurel Popovici in 1906 and aimed at federalizing Austria-Hungary to help resolve widespread ethnic and nationalist tensions, the term "Cisleithania" and "Transleithania" still in use, but the lands of Empire were reformed and create a number of ethnically and linguistically dominated semi-autonomous "states" which would all be part of Empire. The federalization of Austria-Hungary concluded with the union of Bosnia and Herzegovina to the Empire on 04 September 2014.

Constitutional Monarchy under Oskar I

According to the Constitution of Austria-Hungary, which was adopted on 01 September 2014 and inspired by the Norwergian Constitution, Austria-Hungary is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government, wherein the Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary is the head of state and the Chanceller is the head of government. Power is separated among the legislative, executive and judicial branches of government, as defined by the Constitution, which serves as the country's supreme legal document. Cisleithania and Transleithania had autonomy in their internal affairs.

The Monarch officially retains executive power. But, following the introduction of a parliamentary system of government, the duties of the Monarch have since become strictly representative and ceremonial, such as the formal appointment and dismissal of the Chanceller and other ministers in the executive government. Accordingly, the Monarch is commander-in-chief of the Austro-Hungarian armed forces, and serves as chief diplomatic official abroad and as a symbol of unity. Oscar I of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine-Este was crowned Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary in September 2014, just after the renounce of Karl II.

Nobility

The Austrian nobility is a status group in Austria that are still part of Austrian society today, but they no longer retain any specific privilege. Austria's system of nobility was very similar to Germany's system, as both countries were previously part of the Holy Roman Empire (962-1806).

Any noble living in the Habsburg-ruled lands, and who owed their allegiance to the dynasty and therefore to the Emperor, were also considered part of the Austrian nobility|aristocracy. This applied to any member of the Bohemian, Hungarian, Polish, Croatian, Dalmatian and other nobilities in the Habsburg dominion. Attempting to differentiate between ethnicities can be quite confusing. A noble from Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, for example, could call himself a Polish noble, but he also rightfully belonged to the Austrian nobility.

Domestic Policy

When the rise of the Habsburg-Este branch to the imperial throne, the government has been completely redesigned by order of Emperor Oskar I, in an attempt to give the empire a new face and a remarkable case happened in the first hours after the coronation of the new emperor. Guided by the Emperor, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs issued notes expressing, on behalf of HIRM, the desire to establish friendly contacts with other micronations choosed by him. However, numerous copies of requisitions were issued with the name of the wrong country. Embarrassed and frustrated by the possible negative repercussions, he dismissed the Minister of Foreign Affairs and temporarily took over the ministry, making use of their constitutional prerogatives. On 04 September 2014, in an act of confidence to the new emperor, Bosnians joined the Empire. The first minister appointed by His Majesty was Baron Christian Newton von Neszmery, who became Minister of War and two days later, was nominated by the Emperor as Chanceller. The next day, the Baron Cole von Hedlund was named as Marinekommandant and was sent to Port Majestic to attach it to the Empire.

Economy

The capitalist way of production spread throughout the Empire during its existence replacing medieval institutions. Technological change accelerated industrialization and urbanization. The GNP per capita grew roughly 1.9% per year from 1950. That level of growth compared very favorably to that of other European nations. However, the Austro-Hungarian economy as a whole still lagged considerably, as sustained modernization had begun much later. In 1873, the old capital Buda and Óbuda (Ancient Buda) were officially merged with the third city, Pest, thus creating the new metropolis of Budapest. The dynamic Pest grew into Hungary's administrative, political, economic, trade and cultural hub. Many of the state institutions and the modern administrative system of Hungary were established during this period. Economic growth centered on Vienna and Budapest, the Austrian lands, the Alpine region and the Bohemian lands. In the later years of the 19th century, rapid economic growth spread to the central Hungarian plain and to the Carpathian lands. By the end of the 19th century, economic differences gradually began to even out as economic growth in the eastern parts of the Empire consistently surpassed that in the western. The strong agriculture and food industry of Hungary with the center of Budapest became predominant within the Empire and made up a large proportion of the export to the rest of Europe. Meanwhile, western areas, concentrated mainly around Prague and Vienna, excelled in various manufacturing industries.

Foreign Policy

Soon after his coronation, the new emperor made ​​public his interest in doing that reign a time of integration intermicronational and as soon as possible was, honorable establish contacts for the Empire. The first nation that Austria-Hungary was established friendly conversations with the Empire of Myrotania. The event was particularly significant for the new micronation, and was greeted with enthusiasm and surrendered to the Emperor of Myrotania, Thomas I, the degree of Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece. Not have better luck with the Government of Theodia, who declined the offer of mutual recognition, despite not having been a backlash from both sides.

On 3 September 2014, Austria-Hungary and the Principality of Lomellina established mutual recognition and gave sign that the relationship between the two micronations would be friendly, and the covenant sealed with bestowal ofthe Order of the Golden Fleece to Prince Guilherme of Lomellina by the emperor, who was awarded with the Order of the Black Griffin by the Prince. On 04 September 2014, the Republic of Molossia responds to Emperor amicably. Although Molossia maintain a policy of non-recognition of other nations, was polite and friendly, which was welcome to Her Majesty's Government.

Diplomacy

Austria-Hungary has diplomatic treaties with and thus recognises:

  • 25px Empire of Myrotania
  • Bandeira Principality of Lomellina

Classification

In September 2014, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was classified:

Dresner's System of Classification: 2.5

Linden's Revised System of Classification: 3.3

Miles's Scale of Economic Potential: 2.2

David's Micronational Potential Index: 1.8

Matthew's Democracy System of classification: 4

Rosarda's System of Micronational Classification: 16

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