Czech and Slovak Federative Republic
Česká a Slovenská Federativní Republika
Česká a Slovenská Federatívna Republika
Pravda vítězí. Truth prevails.
Kde domov můj a Nad Tatrou sa blýska
|Official language(s)||Czech, Moravian, Slovakian|
|Demonym||Czechoslovak, Czech, Moravian, Slovakian|
|- President||František Otta-Šindelář|
|- Prime minister||Jakub Dus|
|- Type||- federal parliament|
|- Number of seats||- 300|
|Established||28th October 2015|
|Area claimed||127,900 km² (49,382 sq mi)|
|Population||15 729 392 (2011)|
In 1918-1939 and 1945-1992 existed as a sovereign state in 1992 was unconstitutionally divided. In the years 1948-1989 was in the constitution, the leading role of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia.
Czechoslovakia is nominally federal republic with its capital in Prague, but in the meantime it is centrally controlled by provisional state system, which consists of the president, the government and the State Council.
Czechoslovakia is a member of the League of Micronations, also considering was request for membership in the Organization of Unrepresented Nations and Peoples and other of international organizations.
In Czechoslovakia are during the Provisional Constitutional Order of the three sources of power - the president, the government and the State Council, which acts like a small parliament.
Czechoslovakia is a federation of three republics, the Czech Republic, Moravian Republic and Slovak Republic. Latest Moravian Republic was established under the Law on the Bohemian-Moravian compensation.
The main leaders
Czechoslovakia were the highest representatives throughout its existence presidents of the Republic. At the time of dividing the nation states presidents States.
- 1918-1935 Tomas Garrigue Masaryk
- 1935-1938, 1945-1948 Edvard Benes
- 1938-1939 Emil Hacha
1939-1945 Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia - Emil Hacha; Slovak Republic - Jozef Tiso; government in exile - Edvard Benes
- 1948-1953 Klement Gottwald
- 1953-1957 Antonin Zápotocký
- 1957-1968 Antonin Novotny
- 1968-1975 Ludvik Svoboda
- 1975-1989 Gustav Husak
- 1989-1992 Vaclav Havel
- 2016-2020 František Otta-Šindelář
Czech Republic: 1993-2003 Vaclav Havel; 2003-2013 Vaclav Klaus; 2013-2015 Miloš Zeman
Slovak Republic: 1993-1998 Michal Kovac; 1999-2004 Rudolf Schuster; 2004-2014 Ivan Gasparovic; 2014-2015 Andrej Kiska
The First Republic
The original concept of the newly created Czechoslovakia was outlined at a peace conference in Paris Eduard Benes, by statesmen wide range memoranda. One of these documents was submitted to The note on national regime in the Czechoslovak Republic, where Benes promised that the newly founded Czechoslovak Republic "intends to build an organization of the state to adopt national laws and principles applicable to the Swiss Constitution of the Republic". It was also stated in the note, eg. That the official language in Czechoslovakia, the Czech and equal language with Czech and the German public that the authorities will be open to all nationalities inhabiting the territory of the republic.After Czechoslovakia prevailed, however, the idea of creating a unified, democratic centralist "nation-state" based on the idea Czechoslovakism, example and become a guarantor of France.
Its territory was discussed more than half a dozen languages - Czech, German, Slovak, Hungarian, Polish, Ruthenian and other Ukrainian dialects. Other languages were Yiddish, Romany, Romanian, and their dialect (especially near the border with Romania).
Sudeten Germans since the 19th century required the creation of separate linguistic territory with its own separate administration was the founder of Czechoslovakia in response to the secession German-language territories and the German refusal to cooperate in the creation of the new state refused. Státotvorným nation was declared the Czechoslovak nation and a state language became Czechoslovak language (in the form of Czech and Slovak). Czechs and Slovaks were perceived as two branches of one political nation, which demographically dominated interwar Czechoslovakia. Slovaks as a separate nation would have been in the former Czechoslovakia until the third largest nationalities, after the Czechs and Germans.
The constitution was finalized in 2 hr. 30 min. February 29, 1920 and approved March 2, 1920, as the first constitutional charter of the new European states.
The first Czechoslovak president was November 14, 1918 Tomas Garrigue Masaryk (re-elected in May in 1920, 1927, 1934), who after his abdication 14 December 1935 was replaced by Edvard Benes.
The Czechoslovak state conditions with a high standard of living, manifesting also the construction of villa districts of most cities, severely hit by the global economic crisis first half of the thirties, in 1933 and in Czechoslovakia nearly one million unemployed.Another serious interference with the development of the situation in Czechoslovakia was Adolf Hitler to power in neighboring Germany, which became the impetus for the formation of the Sudeten German Party, which aroused the Czech borderland mood anti-Czech and Czechoslovak official authorities put the requirements of assignment A. Hitler. Czechoslovakia is due to these events sometimes dubbed as the "island of democracy in Central Europe." Since 1937 (after the death of TG Masaryk, September 14, 1937), the situation started to become more radicalized, culminating anti-Czech coup in September 1938. Fully in line with the growing influence of nationalist movements and tendencies at the time, the Slovaks began to strive for their national identity (see Slovak People's Party).
Second Republic, the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and the Slovak Republic
When the Czechoslovak political representation is forced to accept the Munich agreement signed September 29, 1938, it was the end of the pre-war Czechoslovak Republic, called. First Republic. The Sudeten Germans were settled a day later, September 30, 1938, submitted to the Third Reich and the eastern part of Czechoslovakia Těšínska (where 35% of the population reported to the Polish and 56% of Czech nationality) Poland. Subsequently, after the First Vienna Award Hungary ceded ethnically mixed area in southern Slovakia and Ruthenia.
As compensation for the losses suffered due to Czechoslovakia, Munich Agreement, and to overcome the economic difficulties associated with the withdrawal of the Sudetenland to Nazi Germany, gave the United Kingdom called Czechoslovakia. Munich loan.Truncated Czechoslovakia, however, existed only briefly, since 14 March 1939 under pressure from Hitler and Slovakia declared independence as the Slovak Republic became a satellite of Hitler's Germany. The remaining Czech territory was occupied by March 15, 1939 by Nazi troops. A day later he was declared Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia.
Even before she left Czechoslovakia first wave of emigration, during which left one hand politically engaged people, but especially Jews whom Adolf Hitler openly threatened liquidation. Many so-called "racially impure" who remained, especially Jews, gypsies, the physically or mentally handicapped, as well as political opponents of the regime, died in concentration camps or were executed.
In 1940 in London Edvard Benes ordained Czechoslovak government-in-exile. Centre communist resistance movement was based in Moscow. They were headed by Klement Gottwald and Rudolf Slansky.
The resistance against the Nazi occupation at home involved a number of citizens even though they knew how cruelly punished the resistance activity. The aim was to restore the resistance movement in Czechoslovakia prewar borders and dealing with collaborators. Important organizations were domestic resistance Defending the nation and the central management of domestic resistance. Defending the nation was virtually shattered Reich Protector Reinhard Heydrich.
Reinhard Heydrich was killed May 27, 1942 a group of UK-trained Czechoslovak paratroopers (Jan Kubiš and Jozef Gabčík) posted in the Protectorate under the Operation Anthropoid (the highest-ranking Nazi policy deliberately killed during the war). In response to this act, the Nazis unleashed a wave of repression that claimed the lives of many residents of the Protectorate. As a result of unacknowledged giving they were razed villages of Lidice and Ležáky and their inhabitants deported to concentration camps.
Due to the rapid progress of Soviet troops to August 29, 1944 the Wehrmacht leaders decided to occupy the territory of the Slovak State. The move sparked the Middle Slovak anti-fascist uprising, which was intended to prevent the occupation of Slovak territory and thus help the advance of the Soviet Red Army. As a result of delays Soviet offensive uprising was harshly repressed, and the entire Slovak territory was occupied by the German army. Insurgents thus had to resort to methods of guerrilla warfare.
May 5, 1945 uprising erupted in Prague, which has spread to most of the Protectorate (May Uprising of the Czech people). The goal was the fastest liberation of the Czech territory from German domination and minimizing other war damage, especially in industry.May 9, 1945, Prague was liberated by Soviet troops (when the Red Army), thereby de facto World War II ended in Europe.
The Third Republic
After the war ended in May 1945, Czechoslovakia was restored, but without the territory of Carpathian Ruthenia, which was annexed to Soviet Ukraine within the USSR was expanding west. A variant of that Czechoslovakia was restored in the Federation of Czechoslovakia, Austria and Poland, Edvard Benes was already rejected in 1942.
Based on the agreements of the Potsdam Conference was on November 1, 1946 2,232,544 exiled German inhabitants (in 1947 an additional 80,000 expulsion of Czech Germans). Because the Potsdam conference while refusing to approve a similar procedure even in the case of ethnic Hungarians, concluded the Czechoslovak government with the Hungarian Government agreement on a. Population exchange at which any member of the Slovak minority in Hungary to move into Czechoslovakia and for him he was moved to Hungary one member Hungarian minority in the Slovak Republic. On the basis of this agreement have been resettled in Hungary 90000 Slovak Hungarians.
In Czechoslovakia was growing support for the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (CPC) and other leftist parties. Already in 1945 there was a nationalization of most Czechoslovak industry.
In May 1946, held its first post-war parliamentary election, which was won in the Czech Republic with a gain of 40% of the votes of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia. Not only benefitted the most from the postwar boom in the popularity of the Left and the Soviet Union as the victor over Nazism, but with promises of more land reform, won a majority of the rural population. But clearly the Slovak Democratic Party won 62% of the vote and the Communists only 30%, but despite this failure Communists together won 38% of the votes and became the strongest party in the country. The outcome of the election affected the composition of the government. Communists retain the leading position not only in the Ministries of Interior, Information and agriculture, but also won the chair of the Prime Minister, in which he sat Party chairman Klement Gottwald. Defence Minister became Ludvik Svoboda.
In February 1948, culminating in the Hradec Králové government crisis program of the Communist Party. The program calls for further nationalization and fragmentation of farms over 50 ha. The Communists also further penetrate to other relevant sites. In protest served most non-Communist ministers on February 20 demise. For example, Jan Masaryk and Ludvik Svoboda remain in the government. The president accepted the resignation on February 25. A new government was the National Front headed by Klement Gottwald.
On 25 February 1948 the President of the Republic Edvard Benes accepted the resignation of non-Communist deputies and appointed a new government of the National Front. That day in 1989 is celebrated as the victory of the Czechoslovak working people. Already in April 1948 the communists nationalized businesses over 50 employees, which nationalized industries amounted to 95%. Also divided estates of over 50 hectares. They issued a law on universal health insurance and made education reform. In June 1948, the Social Democrats merged with the Communist Party.
May 9, 1948, Czechoslovakia was declared People's Democratic Republic. President Benes abdicated for health reasons. The president has become the communist Klement Gottwald. Edvard Benes died in Sezimovo Ústí 3 September 1948 at the age of 64 years.
In September 1948, the law on forced labor camps, after which they were established forced labor camps in uranium mines (Vojna near Pribram, Equality, concord, Brotherhood Jáchymov). October 10 was promulgated the Law on Protection of the People's Democratic Republic.
Big changes have also occurred in the economy, which was built centrally on the Soviet model. Emphasis was placed on heavy industry, mainly arms. She began industrialization of Slovakia. In 1949 he was proclaimed the first five-year plan, which meant the development of heavy industry at the expense of the consumer, it was also a law on collective farms and began collectivization.
In the same year, he died when Joseph Stalin According to some evidence, died Klement Gottwald and a new president was elected Antonin Zápotocký. Said the unfortunate currency. Anthony Zápotocký died in 1957, was replaced by former first secretary of the party Antonin Novotny. Socialism was completed and changed the name of the Republic of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (CSSR abbreviation).
The economic crisis of the system showed the need to cancel the third five-year plan in 1963.
Short periods of thaw in the Soviet Union in the mid-sixties led to the release of the former Czechoslovakia and the Prague Spring in 1968, when Antonin Novotny renounces presidential and party functions. He became president after a short time Ludvik Svoboda.Hopes for "socialism with a human face" were completed fraternal internationalist assistance in Wednesday, August 21, 1968.
The January 1, 1969, Czechoslovakia was transformed into a federation of two sovereign nation-states, the Czech Socialist Republic and Slovak Socialist Republic, while maintaining the overall title Czechoslovak Socialist Republic.
With the advent of Gustav Husak to the head of the Communist Party occurred so. Normalization. The next two decades are known as real socialism (popularly called. "Socialism with gooseflesh").
In the seventies, grew gross domestic product at a rate of 6-11% annually and the Republic experienced an economic boom. Ran industrialization of Slovakia, was built largely beyond heavy industry, highway network, the Prague metro and housing estates.
After releasing ratios within the Soviet Union and the enforcement of perestroika in the late eighties in November 1989 and socialist Czechoslovakia opened to the outside world and embarked on the path to democracy and market economy. Gustav Husak resigned and the president was elected Dec. 29, 1989 Vaclav Havel.
Journey to the collapse
March 1, 1990, it was renamed Slovak Socialist Republic on the Slovak Republic (SR), March 6, 1990, it was also renaming the Czech Socialist Republic, the Czech Republic (CR). March 29, 1990 followed the renaming of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic Czechoslovak Federal Republic, April 23, 1990, there was a definite renamed the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic.Unconstitutionally Czechoslovakia ceased to exist on 1 January 1993, when the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic became independent as two completely separate and completely independent states.
Restoration of the state
On November 11, 2014 was proclaimed the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic as a confederation micronation, which consisted of Bohemia and Slovakia. Moravia and Silesia existed micronation Moravian Soviet Socialist Republic. On 7 January 2015, these micronation joined the Czechoslovak federation, which in May 2015 was renamed the Czechoslovak Socialist Federation. On October 28, 2015, the Czechoslovak Socialist Federation declared void and named the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic. 31 December 2015 it managed Interim Administration ČSFR, from this date the establishment of the interim government, which will manage the country until the elections president, the government and the State Council.
CSFR from 2016 includes three self-governing republic. The basic unit is a self-governing in all republics of the village. Furthermore republic divided into districts and counties. The question of self-government, with the exception of local self-government by the Constitution CSFR falls within the legislative competence republics.
CSFR is a multinational state language very rich. In addition to Czech, Slovak and Moravian are here also speaks German, Silesian, Polish, Ruthenian, Russian, Ukrainian and Hungarian.
On the territory of the Czechoslovak Federal Republic live as Czechs, Moravians, Silesians and Slovaks, as well as members of the nationalities of the neighboring countries. Big changes in demographics occurred Czechoslovakia after World War II, when he had to move large numbers of Germans and Hungarians, and Poles part.
Regarding the question of religion, on the territory of Czechoslovakia is a large number of people without religion, the rest of the population belongs to either Roman Catholic, Hussite or Orthodox Christianity, the Roman Catholic Church dominates.