This is an out-of-date version of this article, last updated at 18.01 on the 14th July 2017, and contains many red links. Please see the full article at Republic of Glastieve
Republic of Glastieve
We will find a way, or make one
Unfounded Revenge (Provisional)
Glory to the Independent (Planned)
|Official language(s)||British English |
|Government||Democratically elected legislative and elected octarchy as an executive|
|- Head of State||None, but Executive powers exercised by the 8-member Cabinet|
|- Chair of Cabinet Meetings and Covocation Sessions||Robert Catcheside (Minister for Governmental Administration and Recruitment)|
|Established||23rd February 2017|
|Area claimed||0.505 square kilometres|
|Population||19 individuals holding Glastieven passports|
|National dish||State Ice Cream (triple cone with mint choc chip, vanilla and honeycomb)|
|National animal||Liger |
– Official governmental portal
Glastieve (/glæstiːeɪveɪ/; Evonian language: TBD), formally referred to as the Republic of Glastieve , is a self-declared sovereign state in north-west Europe, most often characterised as a micronation. Glastieve is situated in the British Isles, and is an enclave nation completely surrounded by the United Kingdom. Glastieve claims 0.505 square kilometres of territory, has nineteen official citizens, and is commonly considered a member of the MicroWiki community. Amoung other micronations, Glastieve is of moderate importance, sometimes considered to be minor and sometimes considered to be intermediate. Glastieve scores 3.9 out of 5 ("One of the most significant micronations") with Linden's Revised System of Classification. Glastieve is more influential economically than diplomatically, having invented the economic Glastieven Model, being a founding member of the Micronational Association for Finance and Economics (MAFE), and attempting to create an economy alongside a political structure.
Archaeological research indicates that Glastieve was near to an established town that traded with Europe as early as 250 BCE. From around 55 CE, the area was controlled by the Roman Empire and was possibly inhabited by the Dumnonii. From around 600 CE to 2017 the land was controlled by the Kingdom of England, the Kingdom of Great Britain and the United Kingdom as farmland part of the nearby city of Exeter. In February 2017, an independence movement established a provisional government and a deceleration of independence was read out on the 23rd February 2017. The Cabinet met again on the 1st March 2017 and passed the Motion to Declare Independence, which as also sometimes given as the official date of Glastieve's establishment. Glastieve had a major Cabinet reshuffle in May 2017, which changed the political composition of the nation, and in late June the Legislative Convocation, a Skype-based legislature containing a mixture of Glastieven politicians and micronational community members, was founded.
Glastieve is a democratic unitary republic with a complex separation of powers. The executive, legislative and judicial powers of the state are fused into a single legal entity called The Executive, which is exercisable solely by the eight-member Cabinet of Glastieve as a single entity, with legislation seen as written permission from the Cabinet to perform certain legal functions. The Cabinet of Glastieve is a corporation that is the Head of State. Legislative permission is granted to the courts (including the Supreme Court of Glastieve) to use the power of the Executive to interpret legislation (legally the word of the Executive) and to review policy, rendering the judiciary effectively independent. Since June 2017, a Legislative Convocation has existed as an elected body, functioning as a legislative independent of the Cabinet and electing the Cabinet based on the partisan structure of the Convocation; however, it only meets once a month and the majority of legislation is still passed by the Cabinet.
Glastieve has been criticised for its lack of participation in the micronational community, which is almost entierly conducted as formal diplomacy and via the Diplomatic Office (part of the Department of Economics, Finance and Governmental Communications). Despite having nineteen official citizens and eleven active participants in government, only Mark S. Kavanah, Robert Catcheside and Jay B'lard are involved with the community, and only the former has any real relevance. Criticism, for example, "to remain active you have to be active inside the micronational community and have more citizens" (Aggelos Imvrassios), is often directed at the lack of percieved integration between the governmental structure of the country and the community. However, in general, the trend in Glastieven politics has been towards greater integration, with the Legislative Convocation including members of the community, and the Diplomatic Office encouraging more casual participation in the community, although with limited success. Direct opposition to greater integration is mostly Acteriendian in nature, officially endorsed by the Acteriendian Party and also found in elements of the Egalitarian Party.
Glastieve, and the surrounding area, was one of the first areas of Great Britain settled following the end of the last ice age. The nearby UK settlement of Exeter began as settlements on a dry ridge ending in a spur overlooking the River Exe, and coins have been discovered from the Hellenistic kingdoms, suggesting the existence of a settlement trading with the Mediterranean as early as 250 BCE. The area now occupied by the Glastieven state was oak forest until 50 BCE at the very earliest, and likely until much later (around 30% of Glastieve still remains forested, according to a 2016 survey carried out by the so-called Republic of Skovaji)
Roman and Anglo-Saxon Rule (55-1537)
The Romans established a fort named Isca Dumnoniorum a few miles from Glastieve around 55 CE, the south-west terminus of the Fosse Way and the start of what would later become the modern-day city of Exeter. In around 75 CE, the fort was demolished to make way for communal facilities serving the Celtic civilian community that had grown to the north-east of the fort, which is what would become Exeter. There is evidence pottery was produced in the surrounding countryside, and the Grey Rapids Pottery Collection has been suggested as possible evidence of this early pottery.
After the Roman Empire withdrew from the British Isles in 410, the Alphin Basin became part of the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Wessex until around 976. This rule was briefly interrupted in 876 when the Danish Vikings briefly captured and held the city, although Saxon rule was restored by Alfred the Great. The closest modern-day settlement to Glastieve, Exeter, was known to the Saxons as Escanceaster, and had the status of a burh, protecting Glastieve and the surrounding area against a second attack and siege by the Danes in 893.
Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Great Britain and United Kingdom (936-2017)
Although the Kingdom of Wessex was officially merged with the Kingdom of Mercia to form the Kingdom of England in 927, the English presence in Glastieve and the surrounding are would not fully be felt until 936, when King Athelstan drove the Celts away from the lowlands surrounding Escanceaster and strengthened the city walls for the third time since the Romans left. Glastieve was part of Devonshire, a shire of the Kingdom of England, thereafter.
The area associated with Glastieve was not included in the 1537 county corporate of Exeter, but was included in the church parish of the village of Ide, as mentioned in the 1591 parish records, and was in the hundred of Exminster in the 1500s. This is the earliest date in which the area between Ide Lane and Cowick, corresponding roughly to an enlarged version of the current territory of Glastieve, was identified as its own subregion within the parish. It was also identified as non-forested farmland, indicating deforestation between around 800 CE and 1500.
By 1765, Glastieve was considered part of the Hundred of Wonford, close to Cowick and St Thomas. Pottery fragments from the Grey Rapids Pottery Collection have been dated to 1837, although they were not produced in the region. With the passing of the Local Government Act 1894, Glastieve became part of the St Thomas Rural District until 1974, when it was incorporated into the municipal borough of Exeter and came under the control of Exeter City Council. During the 1930s, Constitutional Hill Trig Point was built along Hambeer Lane. In 2003, the Alphin Brook Walk was created as part of the Exeter Green Circle, leading to the installation of benches and gates along the hill and valley.
The territory was briefly part of the so-called Kingdom of Skovaji.
Republic of Glastieve (2017-present)
Independence was first considered seriously in early February 2017 by a group of locals, some of whom were involved with the previous Skovaji micronation. A non-sovereign provisional government, the Glastieve Planning Board, was created on the 23rd February 2017, with the intention of formally declaring independence from the United Kingdom on the 1st March. However, this was delayed to 4th March. On the same day, Mark S. Kavanah introduced the micronational community to the country, initially by posting on the MicroWiki forums, and then in the traditional Skype chatrooms surrounding the community. On the 6th March, Glastieve became a member state of the Micronational Virtual Football Federation (MVFF).
In the first Cabinet meeting on the 9th March, the government passed the Ministerial Responsibilities Act 2017 and the Cabinet Procedure Act 2017, which created a codified governmental structure and a procedure for Cabinet meetings. However, much still relied upon constitutional convention. The Cabinet also semi-ceremonially voted to adopt the current flag and a very basic crest created online by the Minister for National Identity, Insignia and Language Charlotte Bourner (however, one Minister, Michael Howe, voted against both). On the 16th March, a quorum of only five Cabinet members met, but passed the Planning Permission Act 2017 and created the Glastieve Shared Google Drive. Although a new crest was informally proposed at this meeting by Mark S. Kavanah, it was not formally voted on.
During mid-March, three government ministers (Michael Howe, John Matthews and Mark S. Kavanah) were accused of using the country's newspaper - The Glastieven - to propagate spin and leaked information. This followed Michael Howe and Mark S. Kavanah leaking private documents and two private conversations held on Facebook Messenger, which exposed John Matthews as planning to use any as-yet-unpassed law and a heavily spun story about Glastieve Transit, a company chartered by the government, to force Michael Howe's resignation. The leaks also showed Matthews had fabricated four special advisers to claim extra payment, and that Kavanah - who was aware of it - had waited several days to report this and continued to use the high citizen numbers to promote the micronation's successes.
In the next Cabinet meeting on the 23rd March, the Cabinet voted to allow the changing of the national crest to the current design, created by João Gustavo and proposed by Mark S. Kavanah, and also re-passed the Planning Permission Act 2017 with an increased majority and an amendment to the middle section. The Cabinet also discussed the newspaper scandal and came to the non-Executive conclusion that John Matthews and Mark S. Kavanah had behaved unfairly, but that the newspaper's function should continue to be exposing duplicity and lies within the government. The Department of Media and Economics was also given new responsibilities relating to the government's image.
Throughout late March 2017, the government's recruitment process continued, with seventeen active members being recorded on 20th March, although a report by Kavanah published in The Glastieven only indicated between nine and eleven members were making weekly or better contributions, either through completion of tasks related to job description, attendance of meetings or dedication to commitments. On the 28th March, the Department of Media and Economics announced a 'revitalisation' plan for their Department's aims, re-encouraging users of the Luach to participate in the economy, and planning a potential launch in the MicroWikia community. The project also involved moving more micronational ventures on to Skype and promoting and increase in activity on the threads. The Cabinet meeting on the 30th March was suspended due to venue unavailability, and the Department of Governmental Administration announced that they would not seek to organise meetings until the 20th April, when the usual venue was next available.
On the 14th April, the Department of Media and Economics announced that the realisation of their revitalization plan would be through the economic Glastieven Model, which was laid out in a white paper also published on the MicroWiki forums.
On the 20th April, the Cabinet met again for the first time since the Transitgate-Spingate scandal. In the meeting, the Glastieven Model white paper was discussed and was positively received, with the Department of Media and Economics encouraged to pursue further development of the idea. The Second Pillar Ideas Cabinet Committee was also approved in the meeting. The primary focus, however, would be the successful vote of no confidence in Minister for Governmental Administration John Matthews, who was unanimously voted out of his position by the other members of the Cabinet. The new position of DoGA Handover and Interim Co-ordination Lead was created and granted to both Michael Howe and Mark S. Kavanah to source a replacement.
In the aftermath of the vote, The Glastieven online newspaper was launched with the first story reporting the vote of no confidence in Matthews, and William Allen was appointed as temporary Minister before an election could be held. The election was scheduled for the next cabinet meeting, on the 27th April, and letters were sent out to all current members of the government, with three candidates - Cassandra Bellingham, John Matthews and William Allen - standing. A single opinion poll was held and predicted that Bellingham would win, with Allen close behind and Matthews trailing.
In the lead-up to the vote, a political split emerged in Glastieve between two sides dubbed Acteriendian and Independentist. The former faction believed that the nation should reflect the existing culture and social structures in place and that the composition of the Cabinet should reflect this. On the other hand, the Independentists believed that Glastieve should be seen as its own entity and that the Cabinet's Ministers should be selected based purely on competence. The Acteriendian view was generally in favour of Cassandra Bellingham - a member of the same traditional friendship group as the majority of the Cabinet - whereas Independentists generally favoured William Allen, who was seen as more dedicated and skilled.
The result of the election defied the opinion poll, with Allen winning over half the vote and achieving a significant lead over both of his competitors. He announced that the message of his victory was that people were “fed up with the inefficiency and the mucking around” in the Cabinet.
The Cabinet failed to achieve a quorum for its meeting on the 4th May, with only Mark S. Kavanah, Genevieve Unak and William Allen in attendance. Tamara Williams, the then-Chief Constable, and Isabella Wall, a new governmental recruit, also attended but were not allowed to vote. Disappointed with the decreased activity but excited at the prospect of the three new members of the government, Allen and Kavanah both led calls for a Cabinet reshuffle, which formally began later that day when two more Cabinet members consented to it after the meeting. This decision was seen as surprising as traditionally die-hard Acteriendian Kavanah and Catcheside both supported a reshuffle that would doubtless wipe out most traditional members of the friendship group.
In a shock move, William Allen suddenly resigned on the 5th May, one day after he had begun to action his reshuffle plans, saying he would “do a s**t job” and felt that the micronation itself was “a little stupid”. Genevieve Unak was appointed to manage the reshuffle, and the drafted plans under Allen were thrown away, with Robert Catcheside replacing Allen in the new Department of Governmental Administration and Recruitment.
On the 7th May, Jay B'lard was appointed Director of the GBC and a YouTube channel for the organisation was created.
On Monday, the 8th May, Unak and Kavanah publicised the results of the reshuffle, which both changed the composition of the Cabinet and also renamed and restructured several government Departments. Most notably, the restructure abolished the Department of Education and Recruitment - transferring responsibilities to the newly-named Department of Governmental Administration and Recruitment - and split the Department of Media and Economics into the Department of Economics, Finance and Governmental Communication, headed by Mark S. Kavanah, and the Department of Media and Technological Affairs, headed by Tom McMillan. The Department of Defence and the Judiciary was renamed to the Department of Public Safety, Defence and the Judiciary to better reflect its existing purview.
The Cabinet at the 8th May contained Mark S. Kavanah as the Minister for Economics, Finance and Governmental Communications; Robert Catcheside as the Minister for Governmental Administration and Recruitment; John Matthews as Minister for National Identity, Insignia and Language; Isabella Wall as Minister for Public Safety, Defence and the Judiciary; Tom McMillan as Minister for Media and Technological Affairs; Michael Howe as Minister for Infrastructure, Transportation and Geographical Affairs; Genevieve Unak as Field Marshall of the Glastieven Armies; and Tamara Williams as Senior Judge of the Supreme Court. Between the 8th and the 12th of May, all the government departments adopted their own logos, and the Army also adopted the Glastieven Military Standard. DoGA and DONIIAL were adopted as acronyms for the names for the Department of Governmental Administration and Recruitment and the Department of National Identity, Insignia and Language. The government also introduced an attendance record for the Cabinet Meetings, with the intention of measuring activity more consistently. The nation's Skype lounge was also replaced with a Facebook Messenger group chat.
The new Cabinet met for the first time on the 11th May, with all eight members in attendance. The Cabinet passed the Planning Permission Act 2017, the first act to be proposed by a Department, and also voted to ratify the Charter of the Grand Unified Micronational, giving permission to either Mark S. Kavanah or John Matthews to notify the GUM of Glastieve's intention to accede.
On the 13th May, Glastieve applied to join the GUM and was granted provisional membership on the 14th. On the 14th, Glastieve joined the Collaborative Assembly of the Micronational Association for Finance and Economics with Jay B'lard as its ambassador, making it one of the founding members of the MAFE.
The Cabinet met again in full on the 18th May, although Michael Howe left partway through. The meeting established the Sofa Government Club, a semi-official and non-legislative, executive or judicial meeting of the government to discuss Glastieven business. The name was a pun on the British political term "sofa government", rendering to decision-making by important figures in political parties and government before official meetings of bodies like the Cabinet, and the fact that the group was a "government club" that met in a venue with sofas.
On the 21st May, the 'The Glastieven' newspaper was moved to a Wix.com domain and was privatised in order to emphasise its independence from the GBC and the Department of Media and Technological Affairs. However, three days later on the 24th, the newspaper backtracked from this decision and announced there would be a "consultation period" until the 5th June when it would announce which website it would be publishing on. Mark S. Kavanah was elected the Chairman and the Editor-in-Chief, with Jay B'lard of the GBC as an editor.
The Cabinet met again on the 25th May, with one pre-warned absence and two unexpected absences, described by DoGA Minister Robert Catcheside as a "disappointing turnout". The meeting gave a Plenipotentiary Licence to the Minister for Economics, Finance and Governmental Communications Mark S. Kavanah, although with significant opposition from Tom McMillan and John Matthews who described it as "dictatorial" to remove democratic Cabinet oversight from diplomatic affairs. The meeting also discussed, despite the absence of Minister for Public Safety, Defence and the Judiciary Isabella Wall, Michael Howe and William Allen's proposal to hire Cabinet security to improve decorum. The proposal was narrowly defeated by one vote, leaving William Allen outside Glastieve. A botched communication of the minutes of the meeting to Isabella Wall regarding them voting on William Allen doing a task related to her job without her presence led to her mistakenly accusing the Cabinet of voting to replace her with William Allen; this incident led to John Matthews being replaced by Robert Catcheside as being responsible for taking minutes in meetings.
The Sofa Government Club also met on the 25th May, discussing mostly the newspaper and whether or not it should be on Wix.com, which looked better but required more maintenance, or on WordPress, which was much easier to quickly update but had a far less professional look.
The Cabinet failed to meet on the 1st June as the venue was unavailable, and the Sofa Government Club's meeting was also suspended.
On the 2nd June, in his first exercise of the Plenipotentiary Licence he had been granted, Mark S. Kavanah announced that Jay B'lard would serve as ambassador to the GUM until the 2nd August, although Mark would continue to negotiate treaties with other nations. With Jay also representing Glastieve in the MAFE, Mark drafted a proposal to also grant him his own Plenipotentiary Licence to allow him to negotiate treaties and join organisations, although this was scrapped after an uncertain response from John Matthews and Tom McMillan in the consultation phase.
The entire of the Cabinet except Tamara Williams met on the 1st June, with Unak informing the Cabinet that Tamara had been forced to leave active micronationalism due to other commitments. The Cabinet elected Teoni Woodward, the pre-reshuffle Senior Judge, to Tamara's vacant post, renaming the position to "Chief Justice of the Supreme Court". Michael Howe proposed that William Allen rejoin the micronation as a security advisor to the Cabinet, however his proposal was defeated 5 - 3.
An attempt to restart The Glastieven online the 6th June, reporting on Glastieven attitudes to the UK general election, failed to gain enough traction to be "worth the effort". Afterwards, the Department of Economics, Finance and Governmental Communications and the Department of Media and Technological Affairs admitted that a macronational-esque media or any sort of meaningful political interaction between the government and an independent media or chorus entity was not a realistic short-term aim for the nation, and GBC Director Jay B'lard was transferred to being a Senior Diplomatic Officer.
The Cabinet meeting on the 8th June saw William Allen appointed to the post ofChief Justice, as Teoni failed to attend the meeting. The Cabinet also voted to disband the Sofa Government Club, as casual conversation about the micronation was already happening without the expense. The Cabinet narrowly voted not to make a roleplaying game based on traditional mythology the new national game, with the full vote and the vote discounting the Chief Justice and the Filed Marshal both reaching a tie, and the Minister for Governmental Administration and Recruitment ultimately deciding to reject the proposal on grounds of controversy.
The Cabinet met again on the 15th June. The Minister for Media and Technological Affairs Tom McMillain and the Minister for Economics, Finance and Governmental Communications Mark S. Kavanah (whose brief included foreign affairs) both formally apologised for the lack of updates to the history section of the MicroWiki article, with William Allen stating that "the 6th to the 15th June 2017 represent a strange hole in the official history of Glastieve that Mark and Tom are responsible for carving out."
On the 20th June, the Taxation and Salaries Committee was formed by Mark S. Kavanah, Robert Catcheside and John Matthews, with the intention of building on the Glastieven Model to create a functional economy in Glastieve. The group wrote the Personnel Ranks and Pay Bands Act 2017 and the Civil Service and Governmental Departments Act 2017, agreeing to divide the economic and bureaucratic responsibilities of the new civil service and economy between the Department of Economics, Finance and Governmental Communications and the Department of Governmental Administration and Recruitment.
The Cabinet met productively on the 22nd June, passing the Luach Credit Instrumentation Act, the Criminal Law Act 2017, the Personnel Ranks and Pay Bands Act 2017 and the Civil Service and Governmental Departments Act 2017. All four Acts were passed unanimously, although debate about whether or not manslaughter should be defined as a crime, and also as to whether banning bestiality and stating that there were no victimless crimes were inherently contradictory.
The Cabinet meeting on the 29th June was cancelled because Tom McMillan was unwell, and Isabella Wall, Robert Catcheside and Mark S. Kavanah were all forming the Glastieven delegation to a local political society, where they won a mock-partisan competition using the logo, values and name of the Glastieven Egalitarian Party.
On the same day, the Supreme Court assembled to discuss the legality of Nedland's claim on Evonia: the Minister for Infrastructure, Transport and Geographical Affairs claimed that Mark S. Kavanah had unlawfully ceded land to Nedland without seeking permission from the relevant Department, which would have been contrary to the Ministerial Responsibilities Act 2017; Mark S. Kavanah defended the claim on the grounds that Glastieve had defined its territory in terms of the land ceded to the UK by the Kingdom of Skovaji by its Liquidation and Dissolution Act 2017, which did not include Evonia as it had already been ceded to Nedland. The court ruled in favour of Mark, but the Chief Justice Will Allen claimed Mark had acted "legally but immorally, using his position as our main ambassador to the micronational community to behave as though he were primus inter pares, not a situation reflected by our processes or day-to-day running of the country."
Starting with the late evening of the 29th June and through until the morning of the 2nd July, many micronational community members were asked to join the newly-founded Legislative Convocation of Glastieve, with their party choices being announced as they came in, in the 'Glastieve serious' chat. In constitutional terms, they were standing for election unopposed, and running with a certain political party, technically making it an election. The Egalitarian Party won, and the Cabinet remained the same, with the Pragmatic Party leader Will Allen staying as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, as the rest of the Cabinet decided to keep him rather than appoint an Egalitarian judge. The leader of the Acteriendian Party in top-tier politics, Alfie Knowles, resigned his post upon hearing the election result, and leadership defaulted to the only remaining member, Michael Thomas Brazeau.
The Cabinet's meeting on the 6th July was initially cancelled as Robert Catcheside and Mark S. Kavanah were both unavailable, and the new venue was still not yet chosen, however five of the eight members managed a video call on the same day in the 'Glastieve serious' chatroom, passing the Manslaughter Decriminalization Act as proposed by Robert Catcheside. Its staunchest opponent, Isabella Wall, was not part of the video call meeting that passed it, and complained afterwards that the vote was illegal, a claim not acknowledged by the rest of the Cabinet.
On the 7th July, Michael Howe and Robert Catcheside were able to organise a new venue for Cabinet meetings, and potentially also organise affiliation between Glastieve and the official Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND). The former move was unanimously praised, although Pragmatic, Acterendian and right-wing politicians in Glastieve, including Egalitarian Party member John Matthews, spoke out against the latter, calling for safeguards to prevent the Glastieven government "becoming involved in political affairs with a bias not shared by all Cabinet members, and even more so acting like a UK charitable body or NGO, rather than the government of a sovereign state."
At 10.46 on the 5th July, the Glastieven Protectorate of Edible Pug Squad was established, claiming 2 square feet of land in Manchester and with eleven citizens, only two of which had been previously involved with Glastieve (and both of whom were staff of the Diplomatic Office). At 16.23 on the 6th July, it was disbanded. The Glastieven Cabinet stated it had had no official involvement in the takeover and was in no way affiliated with the so-called protectorate. A vote was held on whether to call a formal inquiry, but it was defeated 5 - 3.
It was announced on the 10th July that the Cabinet would be unable to meet in person, as despite the new venue there was no time when a Quorum of more than half would all be physically able to meet. This had been planned to be the final meeting before September 2017, however instead it was decided that cabinet meetings would wait until then. On the same day, in the 'Glastieve serious' chat, John Matthews conducted an official survey of citizens' religions for his Department, as he announced he planned to record all the same data as a census by conducting many short surveys, rather than one bulk census.
On 12th July, Mark S. Kavanah and Robert Catcheside held the first formal Mythological Conference, where they gathered every mythological text they could find, and reformed the four cycles system, using new names based on the texts that best showed the development of the three main archetypes, introducing additional chronological details between the cycles to explain any percieved plotholes, and adding a potential fifth cycle (the Crossover Cycle or Time Travel Cycle) as the logical conclusion to events near the end of the BHH Cycle involving the Ravensgate and Fourth Army.
On the 14th July, the Department of Economics, Finance and Governmental Communications announced that the economy would begin on the 1st October 2017.
The total area of Glastieve is approximately 0.505 square kilometres.
Glastieve is a unitary state controlled by the Cabinet of Glastieve, which is treated as a single legal entity despite being composed of eight individuals. The constitution of Glastieve is uncodified and consists mostly of a collection of disparate written uses of executive authority, including Acts (legislation), judge-made case law and international treaties, together with constitutional conventions. As there is no legal difference between ordinary Acts and constitutional law, anybody permitted by the Cabinet to do so can perform constitutional reform simply by passing ordinary Acts, and thus have the political power to change or abolish almost any written or unwritten element of the constitution.
In legal terms, the judicial and legislative aspects of the government are considered parts of the executive, meaning that in technical terms there is no independent judiciary or independent legislative or law-making bodies. In practice, the legal function of 'the Executive' (a concept similar to the non-capitalised executve branch of government, or the Crown in UK and Commonwealth law) essentially splits the government into three parts: the Cabinet, with the sole authority to use executive power or to grant the right to use executive power to other bodies (the legal definition of Acts, which are seen not as instructions for the executive to follow but as written equivilents of the word of the Executive); the Government, which utilities the power of the Executive through acts passed by the Cabinet; and the Supreme (and Criminal) Court, which is granted through an Act the right to use the executive to interpret and apply the law in the name of the Cabinet, and also has the power to change laws through a judicial review process and to create common law. Although this technically grants the Cabinet, and the Executive, sole and unlimited authority, the practical reality of the situation renders the judiciary essentially independent and grants the main powers of executive authority to the government, leaving the responsibility of the Cabinet legislative, and some executive, functions. Since June 2017, an elected body called the Legislative Convocation also exists, which is granted by the Cabinet power to use the Executive (in legally the same way as Government Departments) to create legislation. However, the Convocation only has sessions once a month, and the majority of the powers of the legislative still lie with the Cabinet.
Technically, the Army and the Supreme Court are both controlled by the Government, through the Department of Public Safety, Defence and the Judiciary; however, by constitutional convention, they are usually treated as separate entities. They both have their own representation in the Cabinet.
Cabinet of Glastieve
Main Article: Cabinet of Glastieve
The Cabinet of Glastieve is the physical embodiment of the Executive, which under the Glastieven system of power separation makes it the supreme authority in all executive, legislative and judicial matters. The Ministerial Responsibilities Act 2017 legally defines the Cabinet as "an eight-person corporation sole that represents the legal embodiment of executive, legislative, and judicial governance in the Republic of Glastieve". The contradiction of the term "eight-person corporation sole" is deliberate, as the Cabinet is only legally permitted to act as a single natural person when exercising the powers of the Executive, and must make decisions within itself democratically.
The Cabinet may technically make a decision whenever a quorum of at least five members are available to vote (and in that case they must all vote in favour; the cabinet may only pass resolutions if over half of the eight members choose to do so), although practically Cabinet meetings are held once a week according to the procedure laid out in the Cabinet Procedure Act 2017. They are almost always chaired by the Minister for Governmental Administration and Recruitment, who is not permitted to debate, and include reports from each Government Department and proposal of and voting on motions, functioning similarly to a small parliament.
Despite accusations of sofa government, the Cabinet is legally allowed to create Cabinet Committees consisting of Ministers. Other governmental personnel may assist in the running of, and be de facto but not de jure members of, these Cabinet Committees, although this practice has been considered dubious under the Duality of Posts Precedent - which states that, without exception, each citizen of Glastieve may only have one job within government - set by the Ministerial Responsibilities Act 2017. It has also historically been accused of handing disproportionate power to certain Cabinet Ministers, particularly in the wake of scandals like Transitgate/Spingate. However, recent comments by William Allen and Isabella Wall have stated that no single individual or group of individuals seems to 'lead' Glastieve.
There are currently five active Cabinet Committees (the Glastieve Gaming Cabinet Committee, the Foreign Affairs Cabinet Committee, the Greater Activity Cabinet Committee, the Economics Cabinet Committee and the Glastieven Secret Service) and two now-dissolved ones (the Military and Ordnance Cabinet Committee and the Flag Design Cabinet Committee).
Government of Glastieve and the Civil Service
The Government of Glastieve performs several executive functions by itself, without the direct consent of the Cabinet (this is somewhat academic, as the Cabinet is composed entirely of governmental personnel, what it practically means is that certain powers may be exercised by individual Departments with regard to their area of responsibility, without the consent of the whole Government). The legislation created to control the exercise of these Departmental executive powers is called Departmental Legislation and is considered secondary to Acts, as Departments only derive their power to use the Executive from an Act of the Cabinet, to begin with. Thus, Departmental Legislation may control, limit and direct the powers of the Executive deployed by the Department in the same way as Cabinet legislation controls, limits and directs the powers of the Executive nationally, but it may never increase them or be used to grant the Department additional ways in which to use the Executive.
There are six Departments in the Government: the Department of Governmental Administration and Recruitment (sometimes DoGA), the Department of Economics, Finance and Governmental Communications, the Department of National Identity, Insignia and Language (sometimes DONIIAL), the Department of Public Safety, Defence and the Judiciary; the Department of Media and Technological Affairs; and the Department of Infrastructure, Transportation and Geographical Affairs.
Individuals employed by Governmental Departments, who are assigned ranks according to the Personnel Ranks and Pay Bands Act, are collectively referred to as the Civil Service. Currently comprised of two individuals, allegiencesCivil service is considered distinct from Judicial and Military service, with an obligation to perform duties in line with the law, rather thaallegiances. Civil Servants are sometimes considered top-tier politicians and sometimes middle-tier, although in technical terms they are not allowed to have any political role in running the country.
Army of Glastieve
The Army of Glastieve is the warfare and defence force of Glastieve. As of 2017, the Army of Glastieve comprises two personnel, although military recruitment in wartime allows for nineteen current members of Government to be called up to the frontline. At its peak, it had four members. All members of the Army of Glastieve are expected to swear (or affirm) allegiance to the Cabinet (the legal person) as their Commander-in-Chief, although day-to-day the Army comes under the administration of the Department of Public Safety, Defence and the Judiciary and is commanded by the Field Marshall of the Glastieven Armies.
Currently, the Field Marshall of the Glastieven Armies is Genevieve Unak. The Army also has one general, Final (only connected to the Army through Skype).
Legislative Convocation of Glastieve
The Legislative Convocation of Glastieve is a legislative body of Glastieve. Legally defined in the same way as a Government Department, the Convocation is allowed to create Acts in the same way as the Cabinet itself, although it is not the primary legislative organ of the nation, which remains the Cabinet. The Ministerial Responsibilities Act 2017 legally defines the Cabinet as "an eight-person corporation sole that represents the legal embodiment of executive, legislative, and judicial governance in the Republic of Glastieve". The contradiction of the term "eight-person corporation sole" is deliberate, as the Cabinet is only legally permitted to act as a single natural person when exercising the powers of the Executive, and must make decisions within itself democratically.
Glastieve has a common law legal system in which legislation is technically seen as the word of the Cabinet and therefore the power to utilise the rights of the Executive; in de jure terms, laws do not state what citizens cannot do, but rather grant powers to aspects of the state to prosecute citizens for not doing so. Therefore, in de jure terms, the sole role of the court is to interpret the word of the Executive as to whether or not the prosecuting government agency is within its right to do so in this instance, and to sentence. However, in practice, cases are divided between criminal and civil cases, the former heard in a Criminal Court and the latter temporarily held in the Supreme Court (due to lack of magistrates).
The court system consists of the Supreme Court and the Criminal Court, with a planned Civil Court, all of which apply the law of Glastieve. Trials for serious criminal offences must usually be held before a jury, although this is at the discretion of the magistrate or judge presiding over the case. The Supreme Court has the authority, by means of judicial review, to determine the compatibility of laws and activities of other institutions of the state with the unwritten constitution and the law. Except in exceptional circumstances, court hearings must occur in public. The whole system is overseen by the Department of Public Safety, Defence and the Judiciary, but functions as mostly independent. The Inspectorate of the Judiciary, composed of the Chief Constable, the Minister for Public Safety, Defence and the Judiciary and the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, meets once a month to analyse the fairness of that month;'s judicial proceedings.
Glastieve Police Force is the state's civilian police force. The force is responsible for all aspects of civil policing, both in terms of territory and infrastructure. It is headed by the Chief Constable, who is appointed by the Government. Standard policing is carried out by uniformed officers equipped only with a baton.
Glastieve Police Force
Glastieve Police Force is the police force of Glastieve. The force is headed by the Chief Constable, whose immediate subordinates are intended to be two Deputy Commissioners. However, no police officers have been recruited beyond the incumbent Chief Constable, Tamara Williams. The Police Force operates in conjunction with the court system and with the Army of Glastieve, with military personnel permitted to make arrests and escort citizens to Police facilities. However, neither Police officers nor military personnel are permitted to administer punishment or detention without a trial in the Criminal Court of Glastieve.
Supreme Court of Glastieve
The Supreme Court of Glastieve is the supreme court in all matters under the law of Glastieve. It is the court of last resort and the highest appellate court in Glastieve, and also has jurisdiction to perform judicial review of Acts passed by the Cabinet. The powers of the Executive utilised by the Court are considered to be supreme to those used by the Government and its Departments, and below those of the Cabinet of Glastieve.
Because of the technical status of legislation as an aspect of the Executive, the Supreme Court is much more limited in its powers of judicial review than the constitutional or supreme courts of some other countries. It cannot overturn any primary legislation made by the Cabinet, except in cases of direct contradiction between two Acts, where it is allowed to reword the legislation to remove contradiction. However, it can overturn secondary legislation if, for example, that legislation is found to be ultra vires to the powers in primary legislation allowing it to be made. Further, under section 3 of the Ministerial Responsibilities Act 2017, the Supreme Court may, in the case of contradiction between laws, establish "a legal precedent equivalent to law using the power of the Executive", described as Precedent law and equivalent to Case law in other countries.
The current Senior Judge of the Supreme Court is William Allen.
The main role of the Supreme Court is to hear appeals from the lower courts in Glastieve and pass final judgements. The Supreme Court's focus is on cases that raise points of law of general public importance; appeals from many fields of law are likely to be selected for hearing, including commercial disputes, family matters and judicial review claims against public authorities. The Supreme Court also hears some criminal appeals, although it is rare that a decision is overturned through the appeal process. As of April 2017, the Supreme Court also functions as a temporary Civil Court until one is established.
A Supreme Court sees the lawyers, solicitors and witnesses all sitting in two blocks, facing the Justices during the actual case, and the one to three Justices sitting in a line mirroring the people involved in the case.
Criminal Court of Glastieve
The Criminal Court of Glastieve is the court of the first instance in criminal cases, with appeals handed to the Supreme Court, and is the primary court for hearing and sentencing of criminal cases. The Court's decisions are made by a Magistrate, sometimes with the assistance of a jury, and the Court's function is temporarily run by the 'Head Magistrate of the Criminal Court of Glastieve', a temporary position created to combine the functions of a Magistrate and the planned post of Operation Leader of the Criminal Court of Glastieve.
The current Head Magistrate of the Criminal Court of Glastieve is Cassandra Bellingham.
At the front of the court, there is a desk with a chair. This is where the Magistrate sits. The Magistrate enters and exits the court from the side of the area of the desk, preceded by a cry of "rise for the Magistrate" from the usher or clerk of the court who sits in front (and sometimes below) the Magistrate's desk. Everyone present is required to show their subjection to the court by standing as the Magistrate enters (or exits) until he/she sits down. The Magistrate does not always have a gavel (this is to be individually decided based on the Magistrate's preference).
The clerk of the court, who sits facing the court (that is, the same way as the Magistrate) has a dedicated desk with a small laptop and/or telephone, used when communication is necessary with other parts of the building the court is sitting in (for example the jury assembly area). Another member of court staff is the usher. If papers or other objects need to be passed around the court, for example, notes from members of the jury, or evidence being shown to the jury, normally the usher will do this and will be the only person in the court to walk around while the court is in session.
Behind the usher will be the prosecuting and defending lawyers. The defending lawyer will usually be nearer the jury. The lawyers may optionally have laptop computers or telephones in addition to files of papers relating to the case which will be on the desk in front of them. Unlike the Magistrate, who speaks sitting down, the lawyers always stand to address the court. Behind the lawyers, there may optionally be instructing solicitors, who may convene with the lawyers during the case.
At the back of the courtroom, behind the lawyers, is a semi-partitioned area known as the "dock". This is where the defendant or defendants are placed. A military or Police officer will be sitting with them in the dock. Also at the back of the court, often adjacent to the dock, is an area from where members of the public can observe the proceedings.
Alongside the defending lawyer is the jury box. This is where the jury watches the case from. They will be called to it from the jury waiting area (benches next to it) to be sworn in. Once sworn they always sit in the same seat throughout the trial. If proceedings (such as the legal argument about the admissibility of evidence) take place which they are not supposed to see occur, the usher will escort them into an area just outside the courtroom (probably behind the dock). Only jurors and ushers ever enter this area.
Opposite the jury box is the witness box. Witnesses stand facing the jury and give their evidence so the jury can watch their demeanour while giving it, which might help them decide if the witness is being truthful. When the Magistrate sends the jury to consider their verdict, the usher escorts them to a small area with paper and pens or pencils, and a telephone with which to call the usher, and prominent notices about not revealing deliberations to anyone else. The usher withdraws, and when the jury has arrived at a verdict, they call the phone.
During deliberations, only limited contact is permitted with the outside world, always via the usher. The jury will be permitted only (a) to call for refreshments, (b) to pass a note to the Magistrate, perhaps asking for further guidance, or (c) to announce that they have reached a verdict. The Magistrate may decide to recall them to the court to address them again at any time. The final decision is made by the Magistrate, not the jury, although it is rare for a Magistrate to overturn a verdict.
All staff involved with the court are collectively known as the Judicial Service, which is distinct from the Civil and Military services.
Glastieve is often considered a member of the MicroWiki community, and through the Diplomatic Office has informal relations with most community members, and formal relations with Nedland, Shorewell and Abelden. A defeated proposal would have revived the former Evon Union to include Legatia, Evonia (state of the Desi Empire) and Glastieve.
Glastieve's economy is a primary focus of the micronation, with the Department of Economics, Finance and Governmental Communications responsible for the development and eventual maintainence of the economy. The Cabinet as a whole, and various committees (most recently the Economics Cabinet Committee), assist the Department in the creation of the Glastieven Economic Programme (GEP), which is an economic stratergy designed to create a meaningful, functional economy and keep it that way. In Glastieve, economics is seen as equivilent to politics, and above diplomacy, in terms of importance.
Main Article: Glastieven Model
The Glastieven Model is an economic model created in Glastieve and known throughout the micronational community
There are two main currencies used in Glastieve: the Luach (Ⱡ) and the Pound Sterling (£). The Government recognises the use of both of these currencies, but promotes the use of the Luach, which is the currency that the Government and Bank of Glastieve maintain: official policy states that the Luach is the "state currency", whereas the Pound Sterling is "another recognised currency of Glastieve". The Glastieven (the state newspaper)'s currency section shows the value of both the currencies. Fines imposed by courts, taxes and other Government expenses may be paid in either, and the Government recognises both the currencies (as well as Bitcoin, MicroCoin and M$) as acceptable tender for repayment of debt. However, Government salaries are paid only in Luach. The military only uses Pound Sterling.
The Luach functions legally as an IOU, with the Government distributing Luach units (technically bonds held by the Bank of Glastieve) to a large number of principle issuers, who are then responsible for having these units returned to them, either thorugh currency exchange (natural buying-and-selling) or through a lump payment upon an indivdiual's leaving the programme. The principal issuers, upon leaving the programme, are also expected to pay a lump sum back to the Bank of Glastieve. Ergo, the legal framework of the Luach promotes reciprocal exchange and prevents currency debasement. This is part of one of the three pillars of the Glastieven Model.
Luach paper notes exist, although the preffered transaction method is using the Colu Blockchain set up by the Department of Media and Economics. Each Luach has a technical value of around £0.04, but an "exchange value" is published by the Governemnt in line with the first pillar of the Glastieven Model of £0.25. As part of the Glastieven Economic Programme, a survey was taken by the Economics Cabinet Committee in which remarkable consistency was shown in the valuation of the Luach according to a set of basket items, and the value of £1.00 = 4 Ⱡ was agreed by the three of them for the compution of government salaries and for general publishing.
Private sector and corporations
The Glastieven Private Sector is somewhat small, but is an important area of development for the government. Private sector companies, legally known as corporations, function differently to those in macronational law, with their structure "invented specifically for micronationalism", according to the Department for Economics, Finance and Governmental Communications. Corporations posses legal personality seperate from their members, and are expected to manage their own internal structure with one registered leader (this can be a chairman, director, CEO or whatever other title the company uses). With permission from the Cabinet, a corporation may choose not to be listed on the stock exchange (e.g. Bank of Glastieve) or have multiple registered leaders (e.g. BHH Company).
Glastieve Stock Exchange
The Glastieve Stock Exchange is a nationalised institution run by the Department for Economics, Finance and Governmental Communications and overseen by the Economics Cabinet Committee.
Bank of Glastieve
The Bank of Glastieve, formally the Governor and Company of the Bank of Glastieve, is the central bank of Glastieve and also a private bank offering accounts. It was established to act as the Glastieven Government's banker, although in technical terms the Government are only a single account holder and the Bank also performs the functions of a private bank as well as a central one. The Bank has been privately owned by stockholders from its foundation in 2017, although the Department of Economics, Finance and Governmental Communications own 55% of the bank. The rest is owned by Robert Catcheside and Mark S. Kavanah (who profit from a dividend). It is not listed on the Glastieve Stock Exchange.
The Bank of Glastieve is an important part of the currency distribution of the Glastieven Model. In distibuting Luach, the Government of Glastieve behaves as an agent for the Bank of Glastieve. Any individual or entity accepting Luachs from a principal issuer of the currency is legally obligated to return this money to the principal issuer at any point in the future through spending, or as a lump sum if they discontinue their involvement in the programme. Likewise, if a principal issuer discontinues their involvement in the programme, they must immediately pay the required amount of Luach to the Government, who will return it to the IOU holder, the Bank of Glastieve.
The Bank of Glastieve also performs all the functions of a macronational central bank. The most important of these are maintaining price stability, and supporting the economic policies of the government, thus promoting economic growth. Stable prices and confidence in the currency are the two main criteria for monetary stability. Stable prices are maintained by seeking to ensure that price increases meet the Government's inflation target. The Bank aims to meet this target by adjusting the base interest rate, and through its communications strategy, such as publishing yield curves.
The Bank acts as the government's banker, and it maintains the government's bank account. It also manages the country's foreign exchange and sterling reserves. The Bank also acts as the bankers' bank, especially in its capacity as a lender of last resort. Ergo, financial endeavors made by the government are made through the bank, which means that shareholders of the bank receive a share of all money handled by the governemnt. This is a somewhat contentious position, although it has never been formally challenged by the Government.
Despite not being incorporated, the Bank of Glastieve also functions as a private retail bank and commercial bank. Since September 2017, the Bank has offered Tax-Free Savings Accounts (TFSAs), an important part of the Glastieven Economic Programme (GEP) and promoted by the government. TFSAs allow customers to save monty by setting a target amount, or pegging a target amount to the retail price of a certain object, and then having their money stockpile tax-exempt up until the point where they reach the target, and from that point on any money above the target is taxable. Further, they are not allowed to take money out of the account until they reach the target amount.
Glastieve Stock Exchange
The Glastieve Stock Exchange is a nationalised institution run by the Department for Economics, Finance and Governmental Communications and overseen by the Economics Cabinet Committee.
The Isotoniae Corporation (briefly Isotoniae Incorporated) is a white-collar services company run by Mark S. Kavanah. The company offers graphic designing, legislation writing, grammar-checking and presentation design services, amoung others. The company is the oldest in Glastieve, founded on the 1st December 2014 in the former Republic of Skovaji to run services that would end up nationalised (this was a bit of a fabrication, as the government of Skovaji was only ever composed of between one and four people, and the company's CEO was also the Prime Minister of Skovaji).
Founded to oversee and organise Skovajan non-departmental public bodies the Met Office and the Weekly Wesley, Isotoniae took control of its founders on the 4th December 2014 and over the next month it began multiple smaller ventures, notably the Isotoniae Coding Association, the Skovaji Broadcasting Association (later the governmental Skovaji Broadcasting) and Stapleton Architecture (later the governmental Architecture Registration Board). Although it was officially an independent organisation, it openly declared itself to be the "Skovajan Government's Operations Manager", a sentiment that was mirrored by the government, who considered it to be a quasi-nationalised endeavour. Although in late Skovaji this was often ridiculed as the government overstepping its mark, Glastieve when researching took the opposite view, acknoledging that in realism, there was little divide between what was 'nationalised' and what was 'privatised'.
Isotoniae was severely criticised for both its performance in improving the nation's image in the community and for its economic record. Between its creation and early 2016, the company had a relatively calm relationship with its first economic regulator, the Economic Board, whose strategy was to encourage Isotoniae to make commitments to improvement. However, critics said that the regulator was not tough enough and that the company had, as a result, been able to abuse its monopoly position. In particular, its customers, the government, were desperate for regulatory action to force the company to improve its stewardship of the country's business. The Economics Board had been appointed regulator in 2014 by the then-Paravian government. When the government was reorganised in 2016, the new regulator (the Export Finance Board) took a much harder line. After an interim holding period, during which the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, the successor to the Economics Board, filled the regulator's position, in April 2016 the regulator began to oversee Isotoniae, and a new, much tougher regulatory era began.
The Export Finance Board adopted a more interventionist and aggressive regulatory approach. At times the relationship was stormy, with Isotoniae resisting pressure to improve its performance. By the middle of April it was reported in the Skovaji Economic Times that "...the Isotoniae Corporation is adopting a deliberate 'culture of defiance' against the regulator". The corporation attempted to resist regulatory action to improve its performance, and as the regulator probed ever more deeply, serious shortcomings in the company's stewardship of the Weekly Wesley (and later its other companies) were revealed.
It was an error printed in the Weekly Wesley that would prove to be the defining moment in Isotoniae's collapse. The Weekly Wesley printed a story reading;
The President of the Democratic Republic of Howe, Michael Howe, immediately lodged a complaint against the Skovajan government about the content in the article, claiming that it violated the peace treaty that had been signed by the two countries in the creation of the Exeter UN. Specifically, the government were angry about the usage of the name "Howe" over the full "Democratic Republic of Howe", a contraction that at the time was punishable by law within the nation, and about the Skovajan governemnt's violation of the Treaty of G028, which included mutual recognition as one of the promises made by the nations.
Following an investigation by the Department of Culture and Internal Affairs (now the Cabinet Office and the Department for Culture, Media and Sport), serious shortcomings in the Weekly Wesley's journalism were revelaed. The corporporation admitted to having fabricated both the quote and the change in order to make news, and also admitted that the story was absent from the Skovaji and B'llardland versions of the newspaper. The report also stated that the Weekly Wesley needed significant modernisation, inlcuding a webiste (which is now clsoed), save states and more journalistic writing. the costs of this modernisation, inluding otehr steps that Isotoniae agreed with the Export Finance Board, were intially estimated to be in the region of W76, although this figure continued to increase as the depth of the company's shortfallings were revealed.
Regulatory and customer pressure had been increasing, and the company's share price began to fall sharply as it became apparent that there were serious shortcomings in the company's ability to tackle and solve its greatest problems. In order to try to increase its share value, in March 2016 the company was floated on the Skovaji Stock Exchange, although this did little to remedy the company's decreasing value (in the first month of its listing, the share price of the company decreased by W2.27). Meanwhile, the costs of modernising the Weekly Wesley were spiralling. In April 2016, Isotoniae announced that, despite making a pre-tax profit before exceptional expenses of W200, the W500 of costs and compensation paid out over the Weekly Wesley's outdated journalism plunged Isotoniae from profit to a loss of W300. This caused it to approach the government for funding, which it then controversially used to pay a W120 dividend to its shareholders in late April. The regulator, the Export Finance Board, went to the Department of Business, Innovation and Skills, who declared Isotoniae insolvent without consulting the Seanad derinvart hSkovagee, claiming that it was simply a routine liquidation case. By this stage, the entire government were ready to wade in to save the Isotoniae Corporation's ventures, either through nationalisation or funding grants.
PM Kerry Stapleton was appointed the CEO of the corporation, and through the Export Finance Board gradually sold off the various ventures of the Isotoniae Corporation to the government of Skovaji, where they became various executive agencies. However, the company's board of directors overrode the CEO (who was also the PM), and retained the company's programming and property ventures. The company then applied for full incorporation - becoming Isotoniae Incorporated - and moved into the property risk market. On the 15th May 2016, the company officially escaped the special regulation it had faced since 2014. When Skovaji was terminated on the 23rd February 2017, the company lost its corporation status (although it remained on the Skovaji Stock Exchange) and held new Chairmanship elections, electing Mark S. Kavanah to run the company.
Although it was performing awfully, the company still had an important reputation and an exceptionally high, though decreasing, share price. Kavanah took advantage of this by completely relaunching the corporation, applying and being granted company status by the Glastieven Governemnt as a design firm, later being awarded the contrat to create the GovernmentOnline website maintained by the Department of Media and Economics. This would mark the start of a new era of prosperity for the company.
With the launch of the Glastieven Economic Programme, Isotoniae created a new brief for itself, offering services to indivioduals, rather than the Cabinet or government, and functioning as an ordinary corporation. The company now offer graphic designing, legislation writing, grammar-checking and presentation design services, amoung others. In July 2017, the company held an open referendum in which they decided to keep their distinctive Chuckya logo, maintaining a link to the early days of Skovaji.
Telemart Glastieve is a branch of the Nedlandic grocery store chain Telemart, owned by the conglomerate NedBank. Telemart Glastieve is run by Robert Catcheside, and buys food at cheaper prices than local macronational retailers and sells it in Luach, relying on the second pillar of the Glastieven Model to make a profit. It is the only company in Glastieve owned by a larger chain, but it has considerable autonomy.
DONIIAL Souvenirs is a souvenir-selling company run by John Matthews. The company sells Glastieven souvenirs, postcards and memorabilia, and offers translation into Evonian services (although ironically, it buys these from the Isotoniae Corporation at special rates). Although the company is private (despite the name), DONIIAL Souvenirs is contracted by the Department of National Identity, Insignia and Language to "promote the national identity of Glasteive".
The BHH Company is a company run jointly by Robert Catcheside and Mark S. Kavanah. The company's main aim is to promote the traditional mythology of the country (hence the name, which refers to the last of the four traditionally defined mythological cycles in Glastieven mythology), and it spends time and money recovering old texts, creating new ones and and trying to create a definitive mythology using ShoutWiki. It finances these by selling roleplaying rights and ocassionally selling short stories.
Howe Planetary Industries
Howe Planetary Industries is a worldbuilding company run by Michael Howe. The company offers 'wordbuilding' services, which include developing physically possible planets, galaxies and solar systems (etc) based on specifications provided by the client. The company is the second oldest in Glastieve, founded on the 15th April 2016. Originally it recieved support from the Howetanese government, however this dried up as the DRoH descended into inactivity, and the company became a Glastieven corporation.
Compuplex is a computer programming company run by Tom McMillan.
Transport in Glastieve is the responsibility of the Department of Infrastructure, Transportation and Geographical Affairs. From April to June 2017, the Department contracted a company called Glastieve Transit, which was the subject of the Transitgate/Spingate scandal. When the Department's one Civil Servant, Jay B'lard, was transferred to the then-Department of Media and Economics, Glastieve Transit was nationalised and its services were incorporated into the Department's brief.
The Government describes Evonian as the "national language", but English is the dominant language. In an early 2017 debate on Evonian, 25% of the population regarded themselves as having basic knowledge of Evonian. Governmental road signs are usually bilingual. Most public notices and print media are in English only, although the Isotoniae Corporation offer some services in Evonian). While the state is officially bilingual, citizens can often struggle to access state services in Evonian and most government publications are not available in both languages, even though citizens have the right to deal with the state in Evonian. For example, the government are supposed to translate Acts into Evonian, although only half of one was translated by July 2017, when there were ten Acts in total. In the Army, foot and arms drill commands are given in a mixture of the English and Evonian languages.
As a result of language education, French is the most widely spoken language in Glastieve after English, with Evonian as the third most spoken. Several other languages are also spoken in Glastieve, including Spanish, Irish, Slovak and Japanese. The names "Glastieve" and "Luach" are derived from Old Irish place names and the Middle Irish term for 'value', respectively.
Main article: Religion in Glastieve
In a July 2017 survey of the Cabinet and Civil Service, conducted by the Department of National Identity, Insignia and Language: 33% of Glastievens were Christian (of that, 66% were non-denomination, and 33% were Anglican) and 66% were athiest, agnostic, or followed a non-religious philosophy like Confucianism.
Glastieve's culture is predominantly uniquely Glastieven - a culture sometimes mistakenly known as Evonian - although English and British conquest and colonisation between the 6th and 21st centuries caused Glastieve to become influenced by English and Celtic (especially Irish and Cornish) culture. Subsequently, Glastieven culture, though distinct in many aspects, shares characteristics with the Anglosphere, Europe, and Celtic regions.
Music and dance
Sports and games
The mythology of Glastieve is divided into four distinct, if overlapping, cycles: the Maisraln Cycle, the Suijing Cycle, the Evonian Cycle (or the Jenner Cycle) and the BHH Cycle. The cycles represent a chronological development throughout time, with the strength of magic declining from being commonplace and extremely powerful in the Maisraln Cycle to being almost entirely non-existent in the BHH Cycle, and the strength of technology increasing from being at a roughly 17th Century level in the Maisraln Cycle to being extremely advanced (including faster-than-light travel using negative mass, wormhole portals and entire planets linked to single computer systems) in the BHH and Evonian Cycles. There are five distinct archetypes that are present in multiple cycles under different names; three of these - the REMR archetype, LEIR archetype and the EKCC archetype - are present in all four cycles and undergo a clear development throughout the cycles (this is discussed in greater detail in their respective articles).
The Maisraln Cycle is the earliest of the four cycles and is set in a large area with defined geography but undefined outer borders called Maisraln. Before the cycle itself, there was a period known as the Before, where society was largely tribal, and magic was limited to raw magic and unbounded magic, however the large prevalence of magical spirits and the detrimental consequences of performing light unbounded magic as compared to the benefits of casting dark unbounded magic meant that nearly all mages were evil. The Before ended when the original Five Great Mages created the Kingdom and preceptive magic, which created a period of prosperity that lasted roughly two thousand years before the start of the Maisraln Cycle. The events of the cycle itself focus on a set of Great Mages two or three generations after a revolution that overthrew the previous Kingdom but failed to establish a new dynasty, instead causing Maisraln to descend into a collection of warring states and a period of societal decline. The primary characters in the cycle are Elvar Murchaidh (an example of the EKCC archetype), Raven Darkside (an example of the REMR archetype), Lyra Felise (an example of the LEIR archetype) and Gawyn Harowcal (an example of the G. archetype).
The Suijing Cycle is the second of the four cycles and is set in one of the states of Maisraln, called Suijing. The majority of the stories are set in an even more contained area, the estate belonging to the family of Kensaki Zihau. The cycle is hinted to be set around five hundred to one thousand years after the Maisraln Cycle. Technological space exploration and colonisation of other planets is in the process of starting, and magic is now rare, with only Kensaki Zihau of the main characters able to perform it with the same level of proficiency as would have been common to ordinary people in the previous cycle. The planet of Jenner, which is integral to the next cycle, is explicitly mentioned on more than one occasion as an early success at colonisation. Also, fairly importantly to the Evonian Cycle and crucially to the BHH Cycle, the three main characters establish the Ravensgate, initially to keep magic alive and to police the exploration of space, although over the course of the next two cycles it developed its BHH Cycle role. The primary characters in the cycle are Kensaki Zihau, Erin Xingmay and Eden Fengzhou.
The Evonian Cycle, also sometimes called the Jenner Cycle, is set an unspecified time after the Suijing Cycle and several lifetimes before the BHH Cycle. Technologically, it seems similar to the BHH Cycle, but based on the political references made, it seems closer in time to the Suijing Cycle. The cycle focuses primarily on the interplay between three characters - Cathal Sior (a slightly unusual example of the EKCC archetype), Ida Evon, Irais Evon (a slightly unusual example of the LEIR archetype), Matt Starling (a unusual example of the REMR archetype) and Eithne Lunadelle (sometimes compared to Mala Dzumach Kavanah, creating a fifth EM archetype). Comparisons have been made between Ida Evon and both Elaine Redene Starling and Sabriel Lunadelle Redena. Irais Evon is a weak but highly intelligent ruler of a powerful city-state on a planet colonised by the Evon, propped up by the support of Matt Starling, who performs a Director of Communications-like role to support her rule. Her sister, Ida Evon, and her romantic partner, Cathal Soir, are interplanetary explorers who are based in Jenner, hinted to be involved with the Ravensgate. Another character, Eithne Lunadelle, is aware that Cathal and Ida are Ravensgate officers but wants the power for herself, and constantly tries to take over the state for her own benefit, but can usually be stopped withe the combined efforts of the other characters, until near the end of the cycle, Matt ditches Ida and 'falls in love with' Eithne. Various texts specify different winners for the the final battle, making the cycle unique in its inconsistency as well as its structure.
The BHH Cycle is the final cycle, taking place around 5000 years after an event called the 'breakup of humanity', which is assumed to have been before the Evonian Cycle (which does not use dates), but is sometimes taken as a direct result of the actions of the latter cycle. Returning to the scope and scale of the Maisraln Cycle, and easily exceeding it in complexity, the BHH Cycle has over fifty distinct and described planets with their own species, political system and minor characters, making it difficult to summarise. The Ravensgate plays a pivotal role in many of the cycles more dramatic episodes, as they have now adopted a policy of complete secrecy, and only ever deploy agents to maintain peace or stability when sometimes goes seriously wrong, using what little remnants of unbounded magic that remain perfomable, technology developed by kidnapped Evon, and excellent fighters and spies to wipe people's memories, kill troublemakers or change political systems. The Evonian language and culture are supposedly from the BHH Cycle, as Glastieve is seen as the descendant of the mythological Evon species after they colonised another universe (i.e. ours). The primary characters in the series, called the Fourth Army (a group of 'deratas') are Ciarraí Teagwyn Kavanah (an example of the EKCC archetype), Raven Olympia (an example of the REMR archetype), Rosaline E'lluna (an example of the LEIR archetype) and [.] (an example of the G. archetype). Two other characters, Mala Dzumach Kavanah (sometimes considered an archetype in her own right, the EM archetype) and Lily Black, are also very important to many of the more dramatic plotlines.
GovernmentOnline – Official governmental portal
Glastieven Model (Economics)
Glastieve Stock Exchange - Government-run Stock Exchange