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Antarctica is the only continent on Earth with no countries or governments. Only territorial claims divide the continent, but these claims are only recognized by their respective countries. Because of this, Antarctica has been a hot spot for micronationalism.
In 1959, Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Chile, France, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States signed the Antarctic Treaty. It was agreed among members of the Antarctic Treaty that no nation shall lay claim to West Antarctica, a region bordered by the Argentine/British claim, New Zealand’s claim and the Ross Ice Shelf. A number of micronations, not being signatory to this treaty, have claimed territory in West Antarctica, often based on an alleged loophole.
The 'loophole' theory is thought to have originated from the establishment of Westarctica in 2001. Its founder, Travis McHenry, stated that the treaty only applied to countries. Hence, he claimed the land as an individual, something copied by most micronations claiming land in Antarctica today.
List of Micronations
The Federated States of Antarctica, the Air Kingdom and The Empire of Antarctica claim areas that are within the claims made by the seven macronational states that claim territory on the continent, and are currently the only micronations to do so.
- The Empire of Antarctica (11 August, 2016)
- Richardtopian Empire (12 May 2016)
- Grand Duchy of Flandrensis (22 November 2008)
- Auburn (12 May 2016)
- Principality of Arkel (1 July 2009)
- Air Kingdom (19 July 2013)
- Antarctic Community of Landashir (4th August 2009)
- Nonulusia (21th September 2011)
- State of the People of West Antarctica (10 December 2009)
Possibly former or current micronations
- Keep Watch (February 8, 2009)
- Marie State (2 July 2008)
- Federated States of Antarctica (January 25, 2009)
- Antarctica's Elain of Atilnia
Several micronations have made claim to some territory in Antarctica.
- Kingdom of Bolcar since October 19th, 2012.
- Union of Oceania (Mawson Territory) (01 November 2009 and Reclaimed 21 January 2010)
- Soviet Republic of North America
- Dranoria (Marie Byrd Land (unspecified portion))
- Daniel-Land - Since October 21st, 2012. Claims one part of the South Pole (AMU region nº 18) and Western Antarctica (AMU region nº57).
- Principality of the Regerin Islands - The naval base of New Hartings in AMU region nº 74 was inaugurated in April 25th, 2013.
- Grand Dutchy of Westarctica
Several micronations have existed in Antarctica, but have since been abandoned or reformed.
- Kingdom of Finismund (9 November 2008 - 2 December 2009)
- Socialist Federal Republic of Nemkhavia (31 July 2009 - 31 January 2010) - Claimed Balleny Islands - now a part of Socialist Union of Nemkhavia and Pristinia
- United Antarctica Colonies
- Republic of Varcetia (Varcetia Islands) (5th August 2009)
- Socialist Union of Nemkhavia and Pristinia (claiming sub-antarctic Buffalo - formerly Bouvet - island; and Dresner - formerly Gough - island; claiming antarctic Balleny Islands)
Antarctic Micronational Union
- Main article: AMU
The Grand Duchy of Flandrensis, the Kingdom of Finismund and Marie State signed the treaty “The Micronational Agreement Antarctic”. “The Micronational Agreement Antarctic” is written by H.R.H. Petrus Maximus, King of Finismund & Siple, Emperor of Antarctica and Baron of Flandrensis. On March 24, 2009, the Federated States of Antarctica acceded to the treaty.
The GAMA was founded so as to prevent illegal claims of other micronations. The former Grand Duchy of Westarctica that disappeared at the beginning of 2008, for instance, returned on 31 December 2008 and demanded that Finismund, Flandrensis and Marie State return their territories.
The administration of the GAMA was a mess so the organization needed changes. On 15th January 2010 Grand Duke Niels I of Flandrensis was elected as its first Secretary-General. The same day GAMA was renamed into the Antarctic Micronational Union (a name that has more clarity). The main goal of the AMU is to organize all Antarctic micronations and protect each other's territory and claims. The AMU also keeps records about all current claims in Antarctica to avoid misunderstandings and conflicts.