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A Monarchy is a system of government. It has many definitions, for there are many systems of government that are forms of a monarchy. In most monarchies, the Head of State rules until death or abdication and the new recipient of power is determined by a hereditary dynastic system. However, the hereditary principle is not the defining characteristic, as such states as the Vatican City are still considered monarchies despite their elective nature. Neither is absolute power a defining characteristic, as the Princes of Liechtenstein and Monaco and even the almost entirely ceremonial sovereigns of the Commonwealth and many other modern European states are considered monarchs.
A 1914 edition of Bouvier's Law Dictionary states that "Monarchy is contradistinguished from republic," and gives this definition: 'I cannot find any better definition of monarchy than what this is: a monarchy is the government which is ruled by one person, who is wholly set apart from all other members of the state's (called his subjects); while we call republic that government in which not only there exists an organism by which the opinion of the people, or of a portion of the people (as in aristocracies), passes over into public will, that is, law, but in which also the supreme power, or the executive power, returns, either periodically or at stated times (where the chief magistracy is for life), to the people, or a portion of the people, to be given anew to another person; or else, that government in which the hereditary portion (if there be any) is not the chief and leading portion of the government, as was the case in the Netherlands."
Monarchy is one of the more popular government forms in Micronationalism, although it has declined in the Macronational world in favour of a Republican form of Government. In smaller micronations, where the population numbers a dozen or less, democracy would not be feasible, and therefore a monarchic system is adopted. However, that is not necessarily the case, as there are other nations which have a population of a dozen or less which have a fully operational democratic government. Very often there is not much distinction between a micronation which is a republic, and has an autocratic ruler, and a monarchy with an absolute ruler.
The term 'monarch' stems from the Greek word 'μονάρχης' ('μόνος', meaning "alone" or "only", and 'ἄρχων', meaning "leader").
A Royal House or Royal Dynasty is a familial designation, or family name of sorts, used by royalty. It generally represents the members of a family in various senior and junior or cadet branches, who are loosely related but not necessarily of the same immediate kin. Unlike most westerners, many of the world's Royal Families do not have family names, and those that have adopted them rarely use them. They are referred to instead by their titles, often related to an area ruled or once ruled by that family. The name of a Royal House is not a surname; it is just a convenient way of dynastic identification of individuals in that particular Royal Family. But in some cases if a surname is needed then the Name of the Dynasty or House is used.
Line of Ruling
Monarchys pass from on egeneration to another, moving from first born son on down. A common example of this is in the Principality of Sealand.