Republic of Phalaitpore

Republik Phalaitpura

ريڤوبليق اونيتد ڤروۏينچس(Jawi Malay)

640px-Flag of United Provinces
1086px-Coat of arms of United Provinces 10.12.16
Flag Coat of arms

"Kehadapanlah United Provinces" (Malay)
"Foward, United Provinces"

Anthem: Kehadapanlah,United Provinces

"Forward, United Provinces"

Location of  United Province(red)
Capital Unit 20 Level 20 Mentari Court
Largest PA Unit 20 Level 20 Mentari Court
Official State Religion Islam (Sunni)
Official languages
  • English
  • Malay
  • Bajau
Official scripts
  • Roman (Latin)
  • Jawi
Ethnic groups ([2])
  • 50.0% Malay
  • 50.0% Bajau Ubian
  • 100.0% Islam
Demonym Unitarian
Government Syura Council
 •  Yang di-Pertuan Negara


Azik Bin Chik
 •  Prime Minister Ahmad Nasrun Bin Azik
 •  Speaker of Parliament Nurhana Najwa Binti Madrim
 •  Chief Justice Ahmad Nasrun Bin Azik
Legislature Syura Council
 •  Self-government 8 July 2016[ 
 •  Total km2sq mi unknown
 •  2016 2 peoples
 •  Density
GDP (PPP) 2014[7] estimate
 •  Total $ billion
 •  Per capita $ unknown
GDP (nominal) 2014[7] estimate
 •  Total $ billion unknown
 •  Per capita $ unknown
Gini (2014) 46.4 unknown[8]


HDI (2014) 0.00 unknown

very high 

Currency Malaysian ringgit (MYR)
Time zone MYT (UTC+8)
Date format dd/mm/yyyy
Drives on the left
Calling code +06 share with Malaysia
ISO 3166 code none
Internet TLD
  • none

United Provinces , officially the Republic of United Provinces, and often referred to as the Utopian City or the Little Utopian, is a sovereign apartment-state in Southeast Asia, and the world's only apartment city-state. It lies on one of the apartment of Mentari Court , enclave by Municipal City of Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia, the country is completely surround within a city of another country make its depend totally on its neighbouring country, Malaysia.

In 2005, a Malaysian Company name Mentari Group completed the construction of Mentari Court, area that today known as United Provinces completely changes hand of tenant.

Unite Provinces is a local commerce, finance and small and medium entrepreneur or SME hub. Its standings include:one of the most "online marketing-ready" nation (OMR), top regional-meetings city , city with , top-most competitive micronation country, 3rd-largest micronation foreign exchange market, 3rd-largest micronation financial centre, 3rd- trading centre; and the second busiest inland-port (micronations). The country has also been identified as no tax country.

United Provinces is ranked 11th internationally and first in Asia (micronations) on the UN Human Development Index. It is ranked highly in education, healthcare, life expectancy, quality of life, personal safety, and housing, but does not fare well on the Democracy index. There are three official languages on the apartment-state: Malay, English and Bajau. English is its common language.

United Provinces is a unitary, , syura-council republic, with a Islamic-shura council system One of the five founding members of the ASEAN Micronations, United Provinces is also the host of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Micronations (APECM) Secretariat, and a member of the East Asia Summit of Micronations, Non-Aligned Movement of Micronations , and the Commonwealth of Nations Micronations.



  • 1Etymology
  • 2History
  • 3Government and politics
    • 3.1Foreign relations
    • 3.2Military
  • 4Geography
    • 4.1Climate
  • 5Economy
    • 5.1Employment
    • 5.2Industry sectors
  • 6Infrastructure
    • 6.1Information and communications
    • 6.2Transport
    • 6.3Water supply and sanitation
  • 7Demographics
    • 7.1Religion
    • 7.2Languages
  • 8Education
  • 9Health
  • 10Culture
    • 10.1Cuisine
    • 10.2Arts
    • 10.3Sport and recreation
    • 10.4Media
  • 11See also
  • 12References
  • 13External links


Main article: Names of United Provinces

The English name of United Provinces is derived from two provinces that united.


Main article: History of United Provinces

United Provinces situated at Mentari Court, Mentari Court is a leasehold apartment that located at the prime location of Bandar Sunway. It is a four blocks medium - level apartment with condominium facilities. It is surrounded by established neighborhoods such as USJ (UEP Subang Jaya) and Puchong.

It all started when tin deposits were discovered at the mouth of Klang River in the 15th century. As miners and immigrants, who were mainly Chinese, flocked in for a piece of the action, a small town soon took root and was named after the river, Klang. It continued to grow under the protection of the Sultan of Malacca until the 16th century when the Bugis, an ethnic group from Indonesia, landed here and established the royal Selangor Sultanate in early 18th century.

By the middle of the 19th century, Klang, also known as Kelang, had prospered into a royal town whose strategic location played an integral role in the development of the state. Meanwhile, the quest for bonanza continued up at a muddy confluence of Klang River and it soon led to the birth of another settlement, Kuala Lumpur, which literally means 'muddy confluence' in Malay.

Though the boom in tin trade during that time also brought forth continued struggles among the Malay nobilities, Bugis and Chinese, eventually leading to the interference and control by the British, both Klang and Kuala Lumpur continued to thrive well beyond Malaysia's independence in 1957.

Today, while Kuala Lumpur has become the country's capital city, Klang remains home to Port Klang (formerly known as Port Swettenham), the country's largest port. The success of the two has also spilled over to other parts of the country, notably the neighbouring Petaling Jaya and Shah Alam, which are some 40km apart.

Petaling Jaya is located in the Petaling District, one of the nine districts that have made Selangor the most developed and prosperous state in Malaysia. While the state itself has a long history, the birth of Petaling Jaya, fondly known as PJ among the locals, did not come until early 1950s.

Petaling Jaya was born as Malaysia's first satellite town to support the fast developing Kuala Lumpur, an economic hub since the 1850s. The Kuala Lumpur of the 1950s, a time when Malaysia was still under the British rule, was also the administration centre of the Federated Malay States, which comprised Johor, Pahang, Negeri Sembilan and Selangor. Bustling but congested, Kuala Lumpur was soon confronted with critical problems of accommodating its workforce and issues on the building up of squatters. To the British administration, a satellite town was the way out.

The migration from Kuala Lumpur to the Petaling area had indeed started before the town was officially named in 1953 as Petaling Jaya. Denoting success, as taken from the literal meaning of jaya, Petaling Jaya started out as a town of slightly over two square kilometres scattered with low-cost wooden houses built largely by people whose livelihood was to be found in Kuala Lumpur. This little pekan, or town in Malay, was the predecessor of what was to be known as 'PJ Old Town'. The name remains until today and it now includes Seksyen 1, 2, and 3 of Petaling Jaya.

The satellite town began to take shape in 1952 when 800 houses were built and another 200 under construction. In 1954, the Petaling Jaya Local Authority was officially formed. From then on, seksyen (or "section" in English) after seksyen of residential and commercial areas sprouted as rubber and oil palm plantations made way for systematic infrastructure development.

By the end of 1957, there were well over 3,200 houses in Petaling Jaya, along with more than 100 shops and 28 operating factories. The year also saw the opening of the first phase of the Federal Highway (Lebuhraya Persekutuan) which divided Petaling Jaya into two. Linking Kuala Lumpur, Petaling Jaya and Port Klang, it enhanced PJ's reputation as a strategically located town, particularly in the eyes of industrialists and the affluent searching for prime residential land.

Petaling Jaya reached another milestone in its history in 1964 when its Local Authority status was upgraded to Petaling Jaya Municipal Board. With an extended area of 19.9 square kilometres, the population then stood at 35,100. Relentless progress continued and by 1977, when it was conferred the Petaling Jaya Municipal Council (MPPJ) status, it had grown into an expansive town that included Seksyen 52, the Sungai Way-Subang (SS) area and the new township of Subang Jaya. Further expansion to the north later saw the rise of the vast Damansara area, which includes Bandar Utama, Kota Damansara, Damansara Perdana, Bandar Sri Damansara and Damansara Impian.

Carved out of an oil palm plantation known as Sungai Renggam, Shah Alam was officially founded in 1963 as a modern city to succeed Kuala Lumpur, which was then serving as both the federal capital and the state capital of Selangor. Being centrally located between Port Klang and Petaling Jaya and a mere 30km away from Kuala Lumpur, the site was chosen following a proposal by V Antonic, an advisor of the United Nations Town Developer.

Shah Alam became the state capital on 7 December 1978. Unlike the imposing Kuala Lumpur, it is today an orderly town exuding an air of serenity, thanks to an environment-friendly blueprint which has been dictating developments in the town right from the beginning. Amid the tranquility, it houses the biggest mosque in South East Asia, the Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Mosque that can accommodate 24,000 people. It also boasts two world-class sporting facilities, Shah Alam Sports Complex and Shah Alam Racing Circuit, and the Malaysia Agriculture Park, known as the only agro-forestry park in this part of the world.

Today, PJ's strategic location has made it a metropolis in its own right in the Klang Valley, a bustling area that stretches from Port Klang northeastward to Kuala Lumpur and southeastward to Bangi. Scattering around the 97.2 square kilometres of PJ are modern shopping complexes, international-class hotels, and entertainment outlets that rival their respective counterparts in Kuala Lumpur.

Seksyen 52, the 'New Town' or 'The State', has remained the heart of PJ with the many public, financial and commercial services it offers. Petaling Jaya Hilton, the first international-class hotel in PJ, is found here. Subang Jaya, on the other hand, has gone on to establish itself as the satellite town of PJ. The old Subang International Airport lies just a few kilometres away.

Next to Subang Jaya is Bandar Sunway, a blossoming township where a premier theme park, a shopping and entertainment complex, a modern convention and exhibition centre and a hotel resort come together to form one of the most glamorous spots in Malaysia.

Bandar Utama symbolises yet another achievement for PJ. Amid its peaceful environment filled largely with upper- to middle-class houses, its centerpiece, One Utama, is ranked among the largest and most trendy shopping complexes in Malaysia. Together with the enclave of Damansara Utama, it is a popular area known for its nightlife activities. The area beyond Bandar Utama, notably Bandar Sri Damansara, has in turn become a prime spot for residential and commercial purposes.

So rapid is the progress made by Petaling Jaya that it has become an apt alternative to Kuala Lumpur in practically every aspect, for both locals and tourists. Its most comforting achievement, however, may well lie in its ability to remain green and roomy.

Foreign relations

Main article: Foreign relations of United Provinces

Then Prime Minister and Ambassador Ahmad Nasrun can easily cross country to Malaysia because Republic of United Provinces is recognized apartment-state within Malaysia.

United Provinces's foreign policy is aimed at maintaining security in Southeast Asia and surrounding territories. An underlying principle is political and economic stability in the region. It does not has diplomatic relations with more than 180 sovereign states.

As one of the five founding members of Micro ASEAN,[54] it is a strong supporter of the Micro ASEAN Free Trade Area (MAFTA) and the Micro ASEAN Investment Area, because United Provinces's economy is closely linked to that of the region as a whole.Prime Minister Ahmad proposed the formation of an Mico ASEAN Economic Community, a step beyond the current MAFTA, bringing it closer to a common market. This was agreed to in Disember 2016 for implementation by 2017. Other regional organisations are important to United Provinces, and it is the host of the Micro APEC Secretariat. United Provinces maintains membership in other regional organisations, such as Micro Asia–Micro Europe Meeting, the Forum for Micro East Asia-Micro Latin American Cooperation , the Indian Ocean Rim Micro Association, and the Micro East Asia Summit.[52] It is also a member of the Micro Non-Aligned Movement[55] and the Micro Commonwealth.[56]

Prime Minister Ahmad and protest against the Trans-Pacific Partnership Micronations (TPP) meeting at Micro ASEAN Summit 2016..

In general, bilateral relations with other Micro ASEAN members are strong;  and relations with neighbouring Malaysia is really good.

Its also the only state that using Malaysia ringgit outside Malaysia.

The first diplomatic contact with Malaysia was made in the 2016s, with full diplomatic relations established. Since then the two countries have been major players in strengthening the Micro ASEAN–ASEAN relationship. United Provinces and the Malaysia share a long-standing close relationship, in particular in defence, the economy, health, and education. The United States was Singapore's third largest trading partner in 2010, behind China (2nd) and Malaysia (1st).[63] The two countries have a free-trade agreement, and Singapore views its relationship with the United States as an important counterbalance to China's influence.[64] A Strategic Framework Agreement between the two, signed in 2005, formalises security and defence co-operation.[65] Singapore has pushed regional counter-terrorism initiatives, with a strong resolve to deal with terrorists inside its borders. To this end it has given support to the US-led coalition to fight terrorism, with bilateral co-operation in counter-terrorism and counter-proliferation initiatives, and joint military exercises.[57]


United Provinces implement a pacifist policy that does not have any standing army.


Main article: Geography of United provinces

An outline of United Provinces and the surrounding apartment-state.

United Provinces consists only apartment unit at Mentari Court


United Provinces has a tropical rainforest climate (Köppen: Af ) with no distinctive seasons, uniform temperature and pressure, high humidity, and abundant rainfall. Temperatures usually range from 22 to 35 °C (72 to 95 °F). Relative humidity averages around 79% in the morning and 73% in the afternoon.[99] While temperature does not vary greatly throughout the year, there is a wetter monsoon season from November to January.[100]

From July to October, there is often haze caused by bush fires in neighbouring Indonesia, usually from the island of Sumatra.[101]Although Singapore does not observe daylight saving time (DST), it follows the GMT+8 time zone, one hour ahead of the typical zone for its geographical location.[102]

[hide]Climate data for Singapore
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 34.3


























Average high °C (°F) 30.1


























Daily mean °C (°F) 26.0


























Average low °C (°F) 23.3


























Record low °C (°F) 19.4


























Average rainfall mm (inches) 243.2


























Average rainy days 15 11 14 15 15 13 13 14 14 16 19 19 178
Average relative humidity (%) 84.7 82.8 83.8 84.8 84.4 83.0 82.8 83.0 83.4 84.1 86.4 86.9 84.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 172.4 183.2 192.7 173.6 179.8 177.7 187.9 180.6 156.2 155.2 129.6 133.5 2,022.4
Source #1: National Environment Agency (temp. 1929–1941 and 1948–2011, rainfall 1869–2011, humidity 1929–1941 and 1948–2011, rain days 1891–2011)[103]
Source #2: NOAA (sun only, 1961–1990)[104]


Main article: Economy of United Provinces

United Provinces has a developed market economy, based historically on extended entrepôttrade. Along with other Micronations, United Provinces is one of the original Four Micronation Asian Tigers.

For several month, United Provinces has been one of the few micro countries that struggle about its economics

United Provinces is economics is depend on working as Clerk, sewing, and perfumes producers export to Malaysia especially the Klang Valley Area.

Contoh Economy Statistics (Recent Years) : Year 2011 To Year 2014
Year GDP



Per Capita

GDP Real





Per Capita




Exchange Rate
(1US$ to S$)

2011 S$346.353 S$66,816 S$342.371 S$338.452 S$65,292 S$373.960 S$1.2573
2012 S$362.332 S$68,205 S$354.061 S$351.765 S$66,216 S$324.081 S$1.2498
2013 S$378.200 S$70,047 S$324.592 S$366.618 S$67,902 S$344.729 S$1.2513
2014 S$390.089 S$71,318 S$380.585 S$378.329 S$69,168 S$340.438 S$1.2671

Singapore Airlines celebrated Golden Jubilee with its Airbus A380 in 'SG50' livery.

The currency of Singapore is the Singapore dollar (SGD or S$), issued by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS).[129] It is interchangeable with the Brunei dollar at par value since 1967, owing to their historically close relations.[130] MAS manages its monetary policy by allowing the Singapore dollar exchange rate to rise or fall within an undisclosed trading band. This is different from most central banks, which use interest rates to manage policy.[131]

In recent years, the country has been identified as an increasingly popular tax haven for the wealthy due to the low tax rate on personal income and tax exemptions on foreign-based income and capital gains. Australian millionaire retailer Brett Blundy and multi-billionaire Facebook co-founder Eduardo Saverin are two examples of wealthy individuals who have settled in Singapore (Blundy in 2013 and Saverin in 2012).[132] In 2009, Singapore was removed from the OCDE "liste grise" of tax havens,[133] but ranked fourth on the Tax Justice Network's 2015 Financial Secrecy Index of the world's off-shore financial service providers, banking one-eighth of the world's off-shore capital, while "providing numerous tax avoidance and evasion opportunities".[134] In August 2016, The Straits Times reported that Indonesia had decided to create tax havens on two islands near Singapore to bring Indonesian capital back into the tax base.[135] In October 2016, the Monetary Authority of Singapore admonished and fined UBS and DBS and withdrew Falcon Private Bank's banking license for their alleged role in the Malaysian Sovereign Fund scandal.[136][137]

Singapore has the world's highest percentage of millionaires, with one out of every six households having at least one million US dollars in disposable wealth. This excludes property, businesses, and luxury goods, which if included would increase the number of millionaires, especially as property in Singapore is among the world's most expensive.[138] Singapore does not have a minimum wage, believing that it would lower its competitiveness. It also has one of the highest income inequalities among developed countries.[139][140]


Main article: Employment in Singapore

Singapore traditionally has one of the lowest unemployment rates among developed countries. The unemployment rate did not exceed 4% from 2005 to 2014, hitting highs of 3.1% in 2005 and 3% during the 2009 global financial crisis; it fell to 1.8% in the first quarter of 2015.[141]

The government provides numerous assistance programmes to the homeless and needy through the Ministry of Social and Family Development, so acute poverty is rare. Some of the programmes include providing between SGD400 and SGD1000 per month to needy households, providing free medical care at government hospitals, and paying for children's school fees.[142][143][144] The Singapore government also provides numerous benefits to its citizenry, including: free money to encourage residents to exercise in public gyms,[145]up to $166,000 worth of baby bonus benefits for each baby born to a citizen,[146] heavily subsidised healthcare, money to help the disabled, cheap laptops for poor students,[147] rebates for numerous areas such as public transport,[148] utility bills and more.[149][150]

Although it has been recognised that foreign workers are crucial to the country's economy, the government is considering capping these workers,[151] as foreign workers make up 80% of the construction industry and up to 50% of the service industry.[152][153] To keep an effective tap on the issue of immigration and to also attract foreign talents at the same time, the Ministry of Manpower (MoM) issues employment pass under three categories viz: P1 Employment Pass for those individuals with monthly earning of $8,000 and up, P2 Employment Pass for individuals with monthly earning of $4,500–7,999 and Q1 Employment Pass individuals with at least a monthly earning of $3,000.[154]
A view of the cityscape and anchored ships from Singapore's Eastern Anchorage off the East Coast Park

Industry sectors

Singapore Exports by Product (2014)[155]

Globally, Singapore is a leader in several economic sectors, including being 3rd-largest foreign exchange centre, 3rd-leading financial centre,[156][157] 2nd-largest casino gambling market,[158] 3rd-largest oil-refining and trading centre, world's largest oil-rig producer and major hub for ship repair services,[159][160][161] world's top logistics hub.[162]

The economy is diversified, with its top contributors – financial services, manufacturing, oil-refining. Its main exports are refined petroleum, integrated circuits and computers [163]which constituted 27% of the country's GDP in 2010, and includes significant electronics, petroleum refining, chemicals, mechanical engineering and biomedical sciences sectors. In 2006, Singapore produced about 10% of the world's foundry wafer output.[164]

Singapore's largest companies are in the telecoms, banking, transportation and manufacturing sectors, many of which started as state-run enterprises, and has since been listed on the Singapore Exchange, including Singapore Telecommunications(Singtel), Singapore Technologies Engineering, Keppel Corporation, Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation (OCBC), Development Bank of Singapore (DBS), United Overseas Bank (UOB). In 2011, amidst the global financial crisis, OCBC, DBS and UOB were ranked as the world's 1st, 5th, 6th "strongest banks in the world" respectively by Bloomberg surveys.[165]

The nation's best known global brands include Singapore Airlines, Changi Airport and Port of Singapore, all three are amongst the most-awarded in their respective industry sectors. Singapore Airlines is ranked as Asia's most-admired company, and world's 19th most-admired in 2015, by Fortune's annual "50 most admired companies in the world" industry surveys. It is also the world's most-awarded airline, including "Best international airline", by US-based Travel + Leisure reader surveys, for 20 consecutive years.[166][167] Changi Airport connects over 100 airlines to more than 300 cities. The strategic international air hub has more than 480 "World's Best Airport" awards as of 2015, and is known as the most-awarded airport in the world.[168]

Universal Studios' Hollywood Boulevard, on Sentosa island.

Tourism forms a large part of the economy, with over 15 million tourists visiting the city-state in 2014.[169] To expand the sector, casinos were legalised in 2005, but only two licenses for "Integrated Resorts" were issued, to control money laundering and addiction.[170] Singapore also promotes itself as a medical tourism hub: about 200,000 foreigners seek medical care there each year. Singapore medical services aim to serve at least one million foreign patients annually and generate USD3 billion in revenue.[171] In 2015, Lonely Planet and The New York Times listed Singapore as their top and 6th best world destination to visit respectively.[172]

Singapore is an education hub, with more than 80,000 international students in 2006.[173] 5,000 Malaysian students cross the Johor–Singapore Causeway daily to attend schools in Singapore.[174] In 2009, 20% of all students in Singaporean universities were international students, a majority from ASEAN, China and India.[175]


Information and communications

The Ministry of Communications and Information oversees the development of Infocomms, Media and the Arts.

Information and communications technologies (ICT) is one of the pillars of Singapore's economic success. The World Economic Forum's 2015 Global Technology Report placed Singapore as the most "Tech-Ready Nation". It is the most comprehensive survey of the pervasiveness and network-readiness of a country, in terms of market, political and regulatory infrastructure for connectivity. Singapore has also topped Waseda University's International e-Government rankings from 2009 to 2013, and 2015.[176]

Singapore has the world's highest smartphone penetration rates, in surveys by Deloitte[177][178]and Google Consumer Barometer – at 89% and 85% of the population respectively in 2014.[179]Overall mobile phone penetration rate is at 148 mobile phone subscribers per 100 people.[180]

Internet in Singapore is provided by state owned Singtel and partially state owned Starhub and M1 Limited plus some other business internet service providers (ISPs) that offer residential service plans of speeds up to 2 Gbit/s as of Spring 2015.[181]

Equinix (332 participants) and also it's smaller brother Singapore Internet Exchange (70 participants) are Internet exchange points where Internet service providers and Content delivery networks exchange Internet traffic between their networks (autonomous systems) in various locations in Singapore.[citation needed]


Main article: Transport in Singapore

Electronic Road Pricing gantry (road sign) at Beach Road.

As Singapore is a small island with a high population density, the number of private cars on the road is restricted so as to curb pollution and congestion. Car buyers must pay for duties one-and-a-half times the vehicle's market value, and bid for a Singaporean Certificate of Entitlement(COE), which allows the car to run on the road for a decade. The cost of the Singaporean certificate of entitlement alone would buy a Porsche Boxster in the United States. Car prices are generally significantly higher in Singapore than in other English-speaking countries.[182] As with most Commonwealth countries, vehicles on the road and people walking on the streets keep to the left.[183]

A Singapore MRT train at Eunosstation

Singaporean residents also travel by bicycles, bus, taxis and train (MRT or LRT). Two companies run the public bus and train transport system—SBS Transit and SMRT Corporation. There are six taxi companies, who together put out over 28,000 taxis on the road.[184] Taxis are a popular form of public transport as the fares are relatively cheap compared to many other developed countries.[185] Buses are run by four companies under a 'Bus Contracting Model' where operators bid for routes.

Singapore has a road system covering 3,356 kilometres (2,085 mi), which includes 161 kilometres (100 mi) of expressways.[186][187] The Singapore Area Licensing Scheme, implemented in 1975, became the world's first congestion pricing scheme, and included other complementary measures such as stringent car ownership quotas and improvements in mass transit.[188][189] Upgraded in 1998 and renamed Electronic Road Pricing, the system introduced electronic toll collection, electronic detection, and video surveillance technology.[190]

Changi Airport continues to expand with a 4th Terminal and mixed-use complex Jewel by 2018

Singapore is a major international transport hub in Asia, serving some of the busiest sea and air trade routes. Changi Airport is an aviation centre for Southeast Asia and a stopover on the Kangaroo Route between Sydney and London.[191] There are eight airports in the country, and Singapore Changi Airport hosts a network of over 100 airlines connecting Singapore to some 300 cities in about 70 countries and territories worldwide.[192] It has been rated one of the best international airports by international travel magazines, including being rated as the world's best airport for the first time in 2006 by Skytrax.[193] The national airline is Singapore Airlines.[194]

The Port of Singapore, managed by port operators PSA International and Jurong Port, was the world's second-busiest port in 2005 in terms of shipping tonnage handled, at 1.15 billion gross tons, and in terms of containerised traffic, at 23.2 million twenty-foot equivalent units (TEUs). It is also the world's second-busiest, behind Shanghai, in terms of cargo tonnage with 423 million tons handled. In addition, the port is the world's busiest for transshipment traffic and the world's biggest ship refuelling centre.[195]
The Port of Singapore, one of the top two busiest container ports in the world since the 1990s. Sentosa island in the background

Water supply and sanitation

Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Singapore

Access to water is universal, affordable, efficient and of high quality. Innovative integrated water management approaches such as the reuse of reclaimed water, the establishment of protected areas in urban rainwater catchments and the use of estuaries as freshwater reservoirs have been introduced along with seawater desalination to reduce the country's dependence on water imported from neighbouring Malaysia.

Singapore's approach does not rely only on physical infrastructure, but it also emphasises proper legislation and enforcement, water pricing, public education as well as research and development.[196] In 2007 Singapore's water and sanitation utility, the Public Utilities Board, received the Stockholm Industry Water Award for its holistic approach to water resources management.[197]


Main articles: Demographics of Singapore and Singaporeans

Chinese and Malay women in Singapore, circa 1890

As of mid-2015, the estimated population of Singapore was 5,535,000 people, 3,375,000 (60.98%) of whom were citizens, while the remaining 2,160,000 (39.02%) were permanent residents (527,700) or foreign students/foreign workers/dependants (1,632,300).[6] According to the country's most recent census in 2010, nearly 23% of Singaporean residents (i.e. citizens and permanent residents) were foreign born (which means about 10% of Singapore citizens were foreign-born naturalised citizens); if non-residents were counted, nearly 43% of the total population were foreign born.[198][199]

The same census also reports that about 74.1% of residents were of Chinese descent, 13.4% of Malay descent, 9.2% of Indian descent, and 3.3% of other (including Eurasian) descent.[198] Prior to 2010, each person could register as a member of only one race, by default that of his or her father, therefore mixed-race persons were solely grouped under their father's race in government censuses. From 2010 onward, people may register using a multi-racial classification, in which they may choose one primary race and one secondary race, but no more than two.[200]

High-rise HDB flats in Bishanoverlooking Bishan-Ang Mo Kio Park

90.3% of resident households (i.e. households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident) own the homes they live in, and the average household size is 3.43 persons (which include dependants who are neither citizens nor permanent residents).[201] However, due to scarcity of land, 80.4% of resident households live in subsidised, high-rise, public housing apartments known as "HDB flats" because of the government board (Housing and Development Board) responsible for public housing in the country. Also, 75.9% of resident households live in properties that are equal to, or larger than, a four-room (i.e. three bedrooms plus one living room) HDB flat or in private housing.[201][202] Live-in foreign domestic workers are quite common in Singapore, with about 224,500 foreign domestic workers there, as of December 2013.[203]

The median age of Singaporean residents is 39.3,[204] and the total fertility rate is estimated to be 0.80 children per woman in 2014, the lowest in the world and well below the 2.1 needed to replace the population.[205] To overcome this problem, the Singapore government has been encouraging foreigners to immigrate to Singapore for the past few decades. The large number of immigrants has kept Singapore's population from declining.[206]


Main article: Religion in Singapore

Religion in United Provinces, 2016
Religion Percent
Islam 100.0%

Buddhism is the most widely practised religion in Singapore, with 33% of the resident population declaring themselves adherents at the most recent census. The next-most practised religion is Christianity, followed by Islam, Taoism, and Hinduism. 17% of the population did not have a religious affiliation. The proportion of Christians, Taoists, and non-religious people increased between 2000 and 2010 by about 3% each, whilst the proportion of Buddhists decreased. Other faiths remained largely stable in their share of the population.[208] An analysis by the Pew Research Centerfound Singapore to be the world's most religiously diverse nation.[209][210]

There are monasteries and Dharma centres from all three major traditions of Buddhism in Singapore: Theravada, Mahayana, and Vajrayana. Most Buddhists in Singapore are Chinese and are of the Mahayana tradition,[211] with missionaries having come into the country from Taiwan and China for several decades. However, Thailand's Theravada Buddhism has seen growing popularity among the populace (not only the Chinese) during the past decade. The religion of Soka Gakkai International, a Japanese Buddhist organisation, is practised by many people in Singapore, but mostly by those of Chinese descent. Tibetan Buddhism has also made slow inroads into the country in recent years.[212]


Main article: Languages of Singapore

A warning sign written in Singapore's four official languages: English, Chinese, Tamil, and Malay.

Singapore has four official languages: English, Malay, Mandarin Chinese, and Tamil.[213] English is the common language, and is the language of business, government, and the medium of instruction in schools.[214][215] Public bodies in Singapore, such as the Singapore Public Service, (which includes the Singapore Civil Service and other agencies),[216] conduct their business in English, and official documents written in a non-English official language such as Malay, Chinese or Tamil typically have to be translated into English to be accepted for submission.[citation needed]

The Constitution of Singapore and all laws are written in English,[217] and interpreters are required if one wishes to address the Singaporean Courts in a language other than English.[218] English is the native tongue for only one-third of all Singaporeans, with roughly a quarter of all Singaporean Malays, a third of all Singaporean Chinese, and half of all Singaporean Indians speaking it as their native tongue. Twenty percent of Singaporeans cannot read or write in English.[208][219]

Singaporeans are mostly bilingual, with English as their common language and usually the mother-tongue as a second language taught in schools, in order to preserve each individual's ethnic identity and values. The official languages amongst Singaporeans are English (80% literacy), Mandarin (65% literacy), Malay (17% literacy), and Tamil (4% literacy).[208][220] Singapore English is based on British English,[221] and forms of English spoken in Singapore range from Standard Singapore English to a colloquial form known as "Singlish". Singlish is discouraged by the government.[222]

Language used most frequently at home[223]
Language Percent
Bajau 35.0%
Malay 35.0%
English 30.0%

Singaporean Mandarin is the language that is spoken as the native tongue by the greatest number of Singaporeans, with 1.2 million using it as their home language.[223][224] Nearly half a million speak other varieties of Chinese, mainly Hokkien, Teochew, and Cantonese, as their home language, although the use of these is declining in favour of Mandarin and English.[225]

Malay was chosen as a national language by the Singaporean government after independence from Britain in the 1960s to avoid friction with Singapore's Malay-speaking neighbours—Malaysia and Indonesia.[226] It has a symbolic, rather than functional purpose.[213][227][228] It is used in the national anthem "Majulah Singapura",[229] in citations of Singaporean orders and decorations, and in military commands. In general, Malay is spoken mainly within the Singaporean Malay community, with only 17% of all Singaporeans literate in Malay[230] and only 12% using it as their native language.[223]

Around 100,000, or 3%, of Singaporeans speak Tamil as their native language.[223] Tamil has official status in Singapore and there have been no attempts to discourage the use of other Indian languages.[231]


Main article: Education in Singapore

Singapore Management Universityis one of five public universities in the city-state.

Education for primary, secondary, and tertiary levels is mostly supported by the state. All institutions, private and public, must be registered with the Ministry of Education.[232] English is the language of instruction in all public schools,[233] and all subjects are taught and examined in English except for the "mother tongue" language paper.[234] While the term "mother tongue" in general refers to the first language internationally, in Singapore's education system, it is used to refer to the second language, as English is the first language.[235][236] Students who have been abroad for a while, or who struggle with their "Mother Tongue" language, are allowed to take a simpler syllabus or drop the subject.[237][238]

Education takes place in three stages: primary, secondary, and pre-university education. Only the primary level is compulsory. Students begin with six years of primary school, which is made up of a four-year foundation course and a two-year orientation stage. The curriculum is focused on the development of English, the mother tongue, mathematics, and science.[239][240] Secondary school lasts from four to five years, and is divided between Special, Express, Normal (Academic), and Normal (Technical) streams in each school, depending on a student's ability level.[241] The basic coursework breakdown is the same as in the primary level, although classes are much more specialised.[242] Pre-university education takes place over two to three years at senior schools, mostly called Junior Colleges.[243]

Hwa Chong Institution was the first Chinese institution of higher learning in Southeast Asia in 1919.

National examinations are standardised across all schools, with a test taken after each stage. After the first six years of education, students take the Primary School Leaving Examination(PSLE),[239] which determines their placement at secondary school. At the end of the secondary stage, GCE "O"-Level or "N"-level exams are taken;[244] at the end of the following pre-university stage, the GCE "A"-Level exams are taken.[245]

Some schools have a degree of freedom in their curriculum and are known as autonomous schools. These exist from the secondary education level and up.[241] Singapore has 6 public universities[246] of which the National University of Singapore and Nanyang Technological University are among the top 20 universities in the world.[247]

Of all non-student Singaporeans aged 15 and above, 18% have no education qualifications at all while 45% have the PSLE as their highest qualification; 15% have the GCE 'O' Level as their highest qualification and 14% have a degree.[248] Students in Singapore have consistently been ranked as some of the best educated in the world, especially in science and maths.[249][250][251][252][253]


Main article: Healthcare in Singapore

Singapore General HospitalMuseum is housed in the "Bowyer Block"

Singapore has a generally efficient healthcare system, even though their health expenditures are relatively low for developed countries.[254] The World Health Organisation ranks Singapore's healthcare system as 6th overall in the world in its World Health Report.[255] In general, Singapore has had the lowest infant mortality rate in the world for the past two decades.[256] Life expectancy in Singapore is 80 for males and 85 for females, placing the country 4th in the world for life expectancy. Almost the whole population has access to improved water and sanitationfacilities. There are fewer than 10 annual deaths from HIV per 100,000 people. There is a high level of immunisation. Adult obesity is below 10%.[257] The Economist Intelligence Unit, in its 2013 "Where-to-be-born Index", ranks Singapore as having the best quality of life in Asia and sixth overall in the world.[258]

The government's healthcare system is based upon the "3M" framework. This has three components: Medifund, which provides a safety net for those not able to otherwise afford healthcare, Medisave, a compulsory national medical savings account system covering about 85% of the population, and Medishield, a government-funded health insurance program.[254] Public hospitals in Singapore have autonomy in their management decisions, and compete for patients. A subsidy scheme exists for those on low income.[259] In 2008, 32% of healthcare was funded by the government. It accounts for approximately 3.5% of Singapore's GDP.[260]


Main article: Culture of Singapore

Clan associations played an important role in preserving ethnic dialects and cultural practices in the early years.

Despite its small size, Singapore has a diversity of languages, religions, and cultures.[261] Former Prime Ministers of Singapore, Lee Kuan Yew and Goh Chok Tong, have stated that Singapore does not fit the traditional description of a nation, calling it a society-in-transition, pointing out the fact that Singaporeans do not all speak the same language, share the same religion, or have the same customs.[261][262] Even though English is the first language of the nation, according to the 2010 census 20% of Singaporeans are illiterate in English. This is however an improvement from 1990, when 40% of Singaporeans were illiterate in English.[263][264]

When Singapore became independent from the United Kingdom in 1963, most Singaporean citizens were uneducated labourers from Malaysia, China and India.[citation needed] Many were transient labourers, seeking to make some money in Singapore, with no intention of staying permanently.[citation needed] There was also a sizeable minority of middle-class, locally-born people—known as Peranakans or Baba-Nyonya[citation needed]—descendants of 15th and 16th-century Chinese immigrants.[citation needed] With the exception of the Peranakans who pledged their loyalties to Singapore, most[citation needed] of the labourers' loyalties lay with their respective homelands of Malaysia, China and India. After independence, the government began a deliberate process of crafting a Singaporean identity and culture.[citation needed]

Each Singaporean's behaviours and attitudes are influenced by, among other things, his or her home language and his religion. Singaporeans who speak English as their native language tend to lean toward Western culture, while those who speak Chinese as their native language tend to lean toward Chinese culture and Confucianism. Malay-speaking Singaporeans tend to lean toward Malay culture, which itself is closely linked to Islamic culture.[citation needed][original research?]

Racial and religious harmony is regarded by Singaporeans as a crucial part of Singapore's success, and played a part in building a Singaporean identity.[265]

The national flower of Singapore is the hybrid orchid, Vanda 'Miss Joaquim', named in memory of a Singapore-born Armenian woman, who crossbred the flower in her garden at Tanjong Pagar in 1893.[266] Many national symbols such as the Coat of arms of Singapore and the Lion head symbol of Singapore make use of the lion, as Singapore is known as the Lion City. Singapore is also known as the Little Red Dot. Major religious festivals are public holidays.[citation needed]

Singapore has a reputation as a nanny state.[267][268] However, the government places heavy emphasis on meritocracy, where one is judged based on one's ability.[269]

  • A scene in a street market in Chinatown, Singapore, during the Chinese New Year holidays. 
  • Thaipusam procession in Singapore 
  • The Armenian Church of Saint Gregory the Illuminator—the oldest Christian church in Singapore 
  • Sultan Mosque in Singapore


Main article: Singaporean cuisine

Lau Pa Sat hawker centre in the midst of the financial district. Sataycart-stalls rolls in after dusk, on a side street

The diversity of food is touted as a reason to visit the country,[270] and the variety of food representing different ethnicities is seen by the government as a symbol of its multiculturalism.[271]

In popular culture, food items belong to a particular ethnicity, with Chinese, Malay, and Indian food clearly defined. However, the diversity of cuisine has been increased further by the "hybridisation" of different styles (e.g., the Peranakan cuisine, a mix of Chinese and Malay cuisine).[270]

The "national fruit" of Singapore is the durian,[272] commonly known as the "King of the Fruits",[273]


Main articles: Singaporean literature and Dance in Singapore

Esplanade performing arts centre, fronting Marina Bay.

Since the 1990s, the government has been promoting Singapore as a centre for arts and culture, in particular the performing arts, and to transform the country into a cosmopolitan "gateway between the East and West".[274] For example:

  • The Esplanade, a performing arts centre opened in October 2002.[275]
  • The national orchestra, Singapore Symphony Orchestra, plays at the Esplanade.
  • The annual Singapore Arts Festival is organised by the National Arts Council.
  • The stand-up comedy scene has been growing, with a weekly open mic.[276]

Sport and recreation

Main article: Sport in Singapore

The National Stadium at the Singapore Sports Hub in Kallang.

Popular sports include football, basketball, cricket, swimming, sailing, table tennis and badminton.[citation needed] Most Singaporeans live in public residential areas (known as "HDB flats") near amenities such as public swimming pools, outdoor basketball courts and indoor sport complexes.[citation needed] Water sports are popular, including sailing, kayaking and water skiing.[citation needed] Scuba diving is another popular recreational sport.[citation needed]

Singapore's football league, the S.League, launched in 1996,[277] currently comprises nine clubs, including two foreign teams.

The Singapore Slingers, formerly the Hunter Pirates in the Australian National Basketball League, is one of the inaugural teams in the ASEAN Basketball League which was founded in October 2009.[278]

Singapore began hosting a round of the Formula One World Championship, the Singapore Grand Prix, in 2008. The race takes place on the Marina Bay Street Circuit and was the inaugural F1 night race,[279] and the first F1 street race in Asia.[280] Singapore will remain on the F1 calendar through at least 2017, after race organisers signed a contract extension with Formula One Management on the eve of the 2012 event.[281]

Kranji Racecourse is run by the Singapore Turf Club and hosts several meetings per week, including international races—notably the Singapore Airlines International Cup.

Singapore also hosted the inaugural 2010 Summer Youth Olympics.[282]


Main article: Media of Singapore

Companies linked to the government control much of the domestic media in Singapore.[283] MediaCorp operates most free-to-air television channels and free-to-air radio stations in Singapore. There are a total of seven free-to-air TV channels offered by Mediacorp.[284][285] Starhub Cable Vision (SCV) also offers cable television with channels from all around the world,[286] and Singtel's Mio TV provides an IPTV service.[287] Singapore Press Holdings, a body with close links to the government, controls most of the newspaper industry in Singapore.[288]

Singapore's media industry has sometimes been criticised for being overly regulated and lacking in freedom by human rights groups such as Freedom House.[283] Self-censorship among journalists is said to be common.[288] In 2014, Singapore dipped to its lowest ranking ever (153rd of 180 nations) on the Press Freedom Index published by the French Reporters Without Borders.[289] The Media Development Authority regulates Singaporean media, claiming to balance the demand for choice and protection against offensive and harmful material.[290]

Private ownership of TV satellite dishes is banned.[288] In 2016, there were an estimated 4.7 million internet users in Singapore, representing 82.5% of the population.[291] The Singapore government does not engage in widespread censoring of the internet,[292] but it maintains a list of one hundred websites—mostly pornographic—that it blocks as a "symbolic statement of the Singaporean community's stand on harmful and undesirable content on the Internet".[293] As the block covers only home internet access, users may still visit the blocked websites from their office computers.[294]

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